Infertility and spontaneous abortion  - Spontaneous abortion, habitual abortion

Causes of recurrent abortion

  • Uterine defects (congenital anomalies, submucous and intramural leiomyomas, polyps, intrauterine adhesions)
  • Cervical incompetence
  • Infections
  • Endocrine causes (luteal phase defects, polycystic ovary disease, thyroid abnormalities, diabetes)
  • Chromosomal abnormalities (translocations, inversions)
  • Severe maternal illness (Wilson's disease, maternal phenylketonuria, cyanotic heart disease, hematologic disorders [hemoglobinopathies or aplastic anemia], inflammatory bowel disease, neoplasia)
  • Autoimmune disease, antiphospholipid syndrome
  • Thrombophilic defects
  • Alloimmune disease (shared parental histocompatibility)
  • Chemicals, X-rays, and other noxious agents
  • Psychological factors

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Edited by Aldo Campana,