☰ Menu

Citing biomedical documents - National Library of Medicine (NLM) style

Citing books and other individual titles in audiovisual formats
National Library of Medicine (NLM) style

Patrias K. Citing medicine: the NLM style guide for authors, editors, and publishers [Internet]. 2nd ed. Wendling DL, technical editor. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2007 [updated 2009 Oct 21; cited 2010 Apr 30]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/citingmedicine

Components/elements listed in the order they should appear in a reference: (R) = required, (O) = optional

Author/Editor (R) | Author Affiliation (O) | Title (R) | Type of Medium (R) | Edition (R) | Producer, Editor, and other Secondary Authors (O) | Place of Publication (R) | Publisher (R) | Date of Publication (R) | Extent (O) | Physical Description (O) | Series (O) | Language (R) | Notes (O)

  • Standard citation to an audiovisual
    • Carlson J. Depression [videocassette]. VandenBos GR, producer. Washington: American Psychological Association; c2005. 1 videocassette: 100 min., sound, color, 1/2 in.
    • Wackers FJ, Jaffe CC, Lynch PJ. Nuclear cardiac imaging: equilibrium and gated first pass radionuclide angiocardiography [videodisc]. 1st ed.; Version 1.0. Saint Paul (MN): Image PSL; c1992. 1 videodisc: silent, black & white with color, 12 in.
    • Stanfield PS, Wetle V, Longshore G. Essential medical terminology [audiocassette]. 2nd ed. Sudbury (MA): Jones and Bartlett; c1996. 1 audiocassette: 89 min.
    • Heizer WD, Semrad CE, Sweeting JG. Clinical nutrition I [slide]. Bethesda (MD): American Gastroenterological Association; c2000. 117 slides: color, 2 x 2 in.
    • Baxley N, Dunaway C. Cognition, creativity, and behavior: the Columban simulations [motion picture]. Baxley N, editor and producer. Champaign (IL): Research Press Company; 1982. 1 reel: 30 min., sound, color, 16 mm.
  • Audiovisual authors with optional full first names given
    • Stanfield, Peggy S.; Wetle, Vikki; Longshore, Glen. Essential medical terminology [audiocassette]. 2nd ed. Sudbury (MA): Jones and Bartlett; c1996. 1 audiocassette : 89 min.
  • Audiovisuals with more than three authors (list all)
    • Lindenfeld T, O'Brien S, McCormack M, Arciero R, Wilk K, Paine R, Davies G, Malone T. Treatment and rehabilitation of shoulder instability [videocassette]. Cincinnati (OH): Cincinnati Sportsmedicine Research and Education Foundation; 1999. 2 videocassettes: 160 min., sound, color, 1/2 in.
  • Audiovisuals with optional limit to the first three authors (use "et al." or "and others")
    • Crayton S, Daus G, Heart CA, et al. Health disparities: from civil rights to human rights [videocassette]. Chapel Hill (NC): University of North Carolina, School of Public Health, Minority Health Project; 2005. 1 videocassette: 120 min., sound, color, 1/2 in.
    • Lindenfeld T, O'Brien S, McCormack M, and others. Treatment and rehabilitation of shoulder instability [videocassette]. Cincinnati (OH): Cincinnati Sportsmedicine Research and Education Foundation; 1999. 2 videocassettes: 160 min., sound, color, 1/2 in.
  • Audiovisual author surnames with designations of rank in a family
    • Taylor HL Jr. Health and the built environment: the effects of where we live, work and play [videocassette]. Chapel Hill (NC): University of North Carolina, School of Public Health, Minority Health Program; c2005. 1 videocassette: 90 min., sound, color, 1/2 in.
  • Audiovisuals authors with particles or prefixes in their names (give as provided in the publication)
    • MacFadyen BV, Ponsky JL. The current spectrum of laparoscopic surgery [audiocassette]. Chicago (IL): American College of Surgeons; 1991. 9 audiocassettes.
  • Audiovisual authors with compound last names
    • Kleine-Gunk B. Age shall not weary them: new perspectives on aging [videocassette]. Princeton (NJ): Films for the Humanities & Sciences; c2003. 1 videocassette: 26 min., sound, color, 1/2 in.
  • Audiovisuals with organization as author
    • University of Nebraska Medical Center. Family practice review: best practices for the 21st century [videocassette]. Cherry Hill (NJ): CMEinfo.com; 2003. 41 videocassettes: 80 hr., sound, color, 1/2 in. Accompanied by: 1 guide in 3 vol.
  • Audiovisuals with organization as author with subsidiary part of organization named
    • Kaiser Permanente, Southern California Permanente Medical Group. Surgical reconstruction of cloacal exstrophy [motion picture]. Los Angeles: Wexler Films; 1985. 1 reel: 24 min., sound, color, 16 mm.
  • Audiovisuals with more than one organization as author
    • American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons; American Academy of Oral Pathology. CPC on multiple disease entities [slide]. Chicago: AAOMS; 1993. 41 slides: color, 2 x 2 in.
  • Audiovisuals with no authors found
    • Collaborative research with communities: value added & challenges faced [videocassette]. Washington: Public Health Foundation; 2006. 1 videocassette: 103 min., sound, color, 1/2 in.
  • Audiovisuals with author affiliation included
    • Whitlock DG (Department of Radiology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO), Spitzer VM (Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO). Video 3D atlas of the human head & neck in cross section [videodisc]. St. Louis (MO): Mosby-Year Book; 1993. 1 videodisc: silent, color with black & white, 12 in.
  • Audiovisuals with constructed title
    • Work TH. [Galapagos] [motion picture]. [place unknown]: T. Work; 1988. 2 reels: 3000 ft., silent, color, 16 mm.
  • Audiovisuals with title in a language other than English
    • Diabetes tipo 2: estoy en el riesgo? [videocassette]. Carrollton (TX): PRIMEDIA Healthcare; 2004. 1 videocassette: 15 min., sound, color, 1/2 in. Spanish.
  • Audiovisuals with title in a language other than English with translation included
    • Diabetes tipo 2: estoy en el riesgo? [Type 2 diabetes: what is the risk?] [videocassette]. Carrollton (TX): PRIMEDIA Healthcare; 2004. 1 videocassette: 15 min., sound, color, 1/2 in. Spanish.
  • Audiovisuals published with parallel text in two languages
    • Choropampa: the price of gold = Choropampa: el precio del oro [videocassette]. Cabellos E, Boyd S, producers. Brooklyn (NY): First Run/Icarus Films; c2002. 1 videocassette: 75 min., sound, color, 1/2 in. English, Spanish.
  • Audiovisuals published with text in multiple languages
    • A plastic story: a history of plastic surgery [videocassette]. Adocs, producer. New York: First Run/Icarus Films; c2003. 1 videocassette: 52 min., sound, color with black & white sequences, 1/2 in. English, French, Spanish with English subtitles.
    • Apparition et evolution de l'infirmite motrice cerebrale chez le nourrisson [The onset and evolution of cerebral palsy] [videocassette]. Champaign (IL): University of Illinois, Board of Trustees; c1983. 1 videocassette: 36 min., sound, color, 3/4 in. French, English.
  • Audiovisuals with Greek letters in titles
    • β-arrestins: traffic cops of cell signaling [videocassette]. [Bethesda (MD)]: National Institutes of Health (US), Medical Arts and Photography Branch; 2002. 1 videocassette: 60 min., sound, color, 1/2 in.
    • may become
    • Beta-arrestins: traffic cops of cell signaling [videocassette]. [Bethesda (MD)]: National Institutes of Health (US), Medical Arts and Photography Branch; 2002. 1 videocassette: 60 min., sound, color, 1/2 in.
  • Audiovisuals with more than one type of medium
    • Microhemagglutination assay methods in the diagnosis of syphilis [audiocassette + slide]. Batavia (IL): NCCE; [1980?]. 1 audiocassette: 40 min., 1 7/8 ips.; 29 slides: color, 2 x 2 in.
    • The Guinea pig: handling and basic techniques [slide + audiocassette]. Stockholm (Sweden): FELASA; 1981. 31 slides: color, 2 x 2 in.; 1 audiocassette: 1 7/8 ips. English, German, Norwegian.
    • Ohio Regional Medical Audiovisual Consortium. Case studies in human growth and development: a flexible instructional module [audiocassette + videocassette]. Case Western Reserve University, Health Sciences Communication Center, producer. [Bethesda (MD)]: National Institutes of Health (US); 1978. 1 audiocassette: 7 min.; 1 videocassette: 15 min., sound, color, 3/4 in.
  • Audiovisuals with edition/version
    • The heart truth for women [videocassette]. Rev. ed. Bethesda (MD): National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (US); 2006. 1 videocassette: 9 min., sound, color, 1/2 in.
    • Benzene, toluene, and xylene [videocassette]. Version 3. Lawrence D, producer. Edgartown (MA): Emergency Film Group; c2002. 1 videocassette: 28 min., sound, color, 1/2 in. (Hazchem; 7).
    • Aho M, Dorelli M, Roush L, Turner S. Following Antigone: forensic anthropology and human rights investigations [videocassette]. Eng. version. Gregory S, Dorelli M, Aho M, producers. New York: Witness; c2002. 1 videocassette: 37 min., sound, color with black & white sequences, 1/2 in.
    • Eklund GW, Cardenosa G, Parsons W. Optimizing the mammographic study: positioning and technical considerations [videodisc]. Version 1.0. Minneapolis (MN): Image Premastering Services; c1994. 1 videodisc: sound, color, 12 in.
    • High blood pressure: an introduction to treatment [videocassette]. 3rd ed. Timonium (MD): Milner-Fenwick; c2003. 1 videocassette: 16 min., sound, color, 1/2 in.
    • Epidural anesthesia [videocassette]. 2nd ed.; Informed consent version. Timonium (MD): Milner-Fenwick; c2004. 1 videocassette: 10 min., sound, color, 1/2 in.
    • Kapur RP. Ultrasound of fetal anomalies [videodisc]. 1st ed.; Version 1.0. Minneapolis (MM): Image Premastering Services; c1994. 1 videodisc: silent, color with black & white, 12 in.
  • Audiovisuals with authors and producer(s), editor(s), or other secondary authors
    • Hable M. Avoiding charges of negligence [videocassette]. Classroom Productions, producer. Irvine (CA): ConceptMedia; c2002. 1 videocassette: 25 min., sound, color, 1/2 in.
    • Munoz SJ. Transplantation immunology [slide]. Barchi NE, illustrator. Bethesda (MD): American Gastroenterological Association; c1997. 94 slides: color, 2 x 2 in.
    • Van Peebles M. Classified X [videocassette]. Yves Jeanneau Y, Le Goff C, producers; Mabilat C, Jones J, editors. [place unknown]: WinStar Home Entertainment; 1998. 1 videocassette: 50 min., sound, color and black & white, 1/2 in.
    • Baxley N, Dunaway C. Cognition, creativity, and behavior: the Columban simulations [motion picture]. Baxley N, editor and producer. Champaign (IL): Research Press Company; 1982. 1 reel: 30 min., sound, color, 16 mm.
  • Audiovisuals with multiple organizations as producer
    • Taylor MR. Antibiotic resistance [videocassette]. Multimedia Communications; Physician Education and Development, producers. Oakland (CA): Kaiser Foundation Health Plan; c2005. 1 videocassette: 53 min., sound, color, 1/2 in.
  • Audiovisual producers with subsidiary division
    • Sundin H. Administration of intravenous medication. Administering IV meds to adults [videocassette]. Washington State University College of Nursing, Learning Resources Center, producer. Irvine (CA): Concept Media; c2003. 1 videocassette: 21 min., sound, color, 1/2 in.
  • Audiovisual producers when there is no author
    • Aging & creativity [videocassette]. Grand Rapids Community College, Media Technologies Department, producer. Medfield (MA): Aquarius Health Care Videos; 2002. 1 videocassette: 27 min., sound, color, 1/2 in.
  • Audiovisuals with editors when there is no author
    • Johnson D, editor. Surgical techniques in orthopaedics: anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction [videodisc]. Rosemont (IL): American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons; c2002. 1 videodisc: sound, color, 12 in.
    • Ridberg R, editor and producer. Spin the bottle: sex, lies & alcohol [videocassette]. Northampton (MA): Media Education Foundation; c2004. 1 videocassette: 45 min., sound, color, 1/2 in.
  • Audiovisuals with well-known place of publication
    • Raikes J, Sachs S. Bad hair life [videocassette]. Raikes J, producer; Sachs S, editor. Boston: Fanlight Productions; c2003. 1 videocassette: 57 min., sound, color, 1/2 in.
  • Audiovisual place of publication with geographic qualifier added for clarity
    • Fisher WL, Papele H. 2005 national patient safety goals: training video for staff [videocassette]. Marblehead (MA): HCPro; c2005. 1 videocassette: 26 min., sound, color, 1/2 in.
  • Audiovisuals with place of publication inferred
    • Fluoride: the magnificent mineral [motion picture]. [Bethesda (MD)]: National Institute of Dental Research (US), National Caries Program; c1984. 1 reel: 468 ft., sound, color with black & white, 16 mm.
  • Audiovisuals with no place of publication found
    • Work TH. [Galapagos] [motion picture]. [place unknown]: T. Work; 1988. 2 reels: 3000 ft., silent, color, 16 mm.
  • Audiovisual publisher with subsidiary department/division named
    • Stryker MP. Making maps in the brain [videocassette]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US), Medical Arts and Photography Branch, Office of Research Services; 2006. 1 videocassette: 63 min., sound, color, 1/2 in.
  • Audiovisuals with government agency as publisher
    • Epidemiology and prevention of viral hepatitis A, B, C, D, E: an overview [slide]. Atlanta (GA): Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US); 1996. 67 slides: color, 2 x 2 in.
  • Audiovisuals with joint publication
    • Does anyone die of AIDS anymore? [videocassette]. Los Angeles: Dream Out Loud Productions; 2002. 1 videocassette: 26 min., sound, color, 1/2 in. Jointly published by Fanlight Productions, Boston.
  • Audiovisuals with no publisher found
    • Kontrastdarstellung des Herzens und der grossen Gefasse im Rontgen-Kinofilm [Demonstration of the heart and large vessels in cine-radiographic film] [motion picture]. Bonn (Germany): [publisher unknown]; 1959. 1 reel: sound, black & white, 16 mm. German.
  • Audiovisuals with no place of publication or publisher found
    • Physics and technology applied to radiology and radiation oncology [slide]. [place unknown: publisher unknown]; 1994. 100 slides: color with black & white, 2 x 2 in.
  • Audiovisuals with standard date of publication
    • Glazer WM. Dosing antipsychotic medications: insights from data and practice [videocassette]. Health & Sciences Television Network, producer. Carrollton (TX): PRIMEDIA Workplace Learning; 2002. 1 videocassette: 60 min., sound, color, 1/2 in.
  • Audiovisuals with date of copyright instead of date of publication
    • Assessment & diagnosis [videocassette]. Nick Kaufman Productions, producer. Clifton Park (NY): Thomson Delmar Learning; c2003. 1 videocassette: 30 min., sound, color, 1/2 in.
  • Audiovisuals with date of publication and date of copyright
    • MacIntyre R, Preston I. A room full of men [videocassette]. Preston I, Mitchell D, producers; Preston I, MacIntyre R, editors. Princeton (NJ): Films for the Humanities & Sciences; 1997, c1991. 1 videocassette: 49 min., sound, color, 1/2 in.
  • Audiovisuals with date range of publication
    • Paranormale heilmethoden auf den Philippinen = Paranormal healing in the Philippines [videocassette]. [place unknown: publisher unknown]; 1973-1980. 2 videocassettes: 90 min., sound, color, 3/4 in. German, English.
  • Audiovisuals with date of publication estimated
    • Akademiia Meditsinskikh nauk SSSR, Institut Tuberkuleza. Udalenie doli legkogo pri tuberkuleze [Lung lobe resection in tuberculosis] [motion picture]. Moscow: Otdel nauchnoi Kinofotodokumentatsii AMN SSSR; [1957?]. 2 reels: sound, color, 35 mm. Russian.
  • Audiovisuals with no date of publication or copyright found
    • Cartwright B, D'Andrea M, Daniels J. Confronting racial and gender difference: 3 approaches to multicultural counseling and therapy [videocassette]. Framingham (MA): Microtraining Associates; [date unknown]. 1 videocassette: 80 min., sound, color, 1/2 in.
  • Audiovisuals with no place, publisher, or date of publication found
    • Technique of laparoscopy [motion picture]. [place, publisher, date unknown]. 1 reel: 757 ft., sound, color, 16 mm.
  • Audiovisual series with number given
    • Assessment & diagnosis [videocassette]. Nick Kaufman Productions, producer. Clifton Park (NY): Thomson Delmar Learning; c2003. 1 videocassette: 30 min., sound, color, 1/2 in. (Core concepts in nursing; program 2).
    • Greenberger NJ. Acute abdominal pain in adults [videocassette]. Secaucus (NJ): Network for Continuing Medical Education; 1987. 1 videocassette: 32 min., sound, color, 1/2 in. (NCME VHS; no. 842).
    • Benzene, toluene, and xylene [videocassette]. Version 3. Lawrence D, producer. Edgartown (MA): Emergency Film Group; c2002. 1 videocassette: 28 min., sound, color, 1/2 in. (Hazchem; 7).
    • Fuller MG. Cocaine use and its medical consequences [slide]. Hanover (NH): Project Cork; c1995. 62 slides: color, 2 x 2 in. (Alcohol use and its medical consequences; unit 11).
  • Audiovisuals with series without number
    • Rawson RA. Methamphetamine-- new knowledge, new treatments [videocassette]. Center City (MN): Hazelden Foundation; c2006. 1 videocassette: 64 min., sound, color, 1/2 in. (The clinical innovators series).
  • Audiovisuals with series with editor
    • Nelson JS, McKeever PE. Clinical neuropathology [videodisc]. Version 1.0. Minneapolis (MN): Image Premastering Services; c1994. 1 videodisc: silent, color, 12 in. (Nyberg DA, editor. ImageDisc library). Accompanied by: 200 p. guide.
  • Audiovisuals with sponsorship note included
    • Advances in diagnosis and treatment of sleep apnea and snoring [videocassette]. Cherry Hill (NJ): CMEinfo.com; 2000. 7 videocassettes: 13 hr., sound, color, 1/2 in. Sponsored by University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine.
  • Audiovisuals accompanied by a manual or other material
    • Collins MS. Advanced radiology life support [videocassette]. Cherry Hill (NJ): CMEinfo.com; 2002. 4 videocassettes: 4 hr., sound, color, 1/2 in. Accompanied by: 1 guide (60 p.) and 1 post-test.
  • Audiovisuals with supplemental note included
    • A family perspective: type 2 diabetes in young people [videocassette]. Timonium (MD): Milner-Fenwick; c2005. 1 videocassette: 19 min., sound, color, 1/2 in. Produced in cooperation with the American Association of Diabetes Educators.
    • 1996 STD surveillance report [slide]. Atlanta (GA): Centers for Disease Control (US); 1997. 59 slides: color, 2 x 2 in. Available from: NTIS, Springfield, VA; AVA20125SS00.
    • Taylor HL Jr. Health and the built environment: the effects of where we live, work and play [videocassette]. Chapel Hill (NC): University of North Carolina, School of Public Health, Minority Health Program; c2005. 1 videocassette: 90 min., sound, color, 1/2 in. From the 26th Minority Health Conference, held in 2005 at Chapel Hill, NC.
    • Minkoff K. Adults and co-occurring disorders [videocassette]. Blue Moon Productions, producer. Center City (MN): Hazelden; c2003. 1 videocassette: 28 min., sound, color, 1/2 in. Closed-captioned.
    • Fluoride: the magnificent mineral [motion picture]. [Bethesda (MD)]: National Institute of Dental Research (US), National Caries Program; c1984. 1 reel: sound, color with black & white, 16 mm. Made possible by a grant from the Colgate-Palmolive Co.
    • Harbaugh OS, Slocum DB. Amputation of lower extremity [motion picture]. [Washington]: War Department (US); 1944. 2 reels: 45 min., silent, color, 16 mm. Located at: History of Medicine Division, National Library of Medicine; WE 850 VC no.40 1944.
    • Barry J, Hoard C. P.I.S.T. [motion picture]. Barry J, producer. Santa Monica (CA): Pyramid Film & Video; 1984. 1 reel: 6 min., sound, color, 16 mm. P.I.S.T. is an acronym for Psychological Improvement Situational Training.
    • Microhemagglutination assay methods in the diagnosis of syphilis [audiocassette + slide]. Batavia (IL): NCCE; [1980?]. 1 audiocassette: 40 min., 1 7/8 ips.; 29 slides: color, 2 x 2 in. NCCE stands for National Center for Continuing Education.
    • History of bioterrorism: biological warfare and terrorism [videocassette]. [Atlanta (GA)]: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US); 2003. 1 videocassette: 27 min., sound, color with black & white sequences, 1/2 in. Parts of this video were adapted from "Biological warfare and terrorism: the military and public health response," co-produced by the United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 1999.