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Citing biomedical documents - National Library of Medicine (NLM) style

Citing computer programs on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk
National Library of Medicine (NLM) style

Patrias, Karen. Citing medicine: the NLM style guide for authors, editors, and publishers [Internet]. 2nd ed. Wendling, Daniel L., technical editor. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2007 [cited 2008 Dec 14]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/citingmedicine

Components/elements listed in the order they should appear in a reference: (R) = required, (O) = optional

Author/Editor (R) | Author Affiliation (O) | Title (R) | Content Type (O) | Type of Medium (R) | Edition (R) | Editor and other Secondary Authors (O) | Place of Publication (R) | Publisher (R) | Date of Publication (R) | Date of Update/Revision (R) | Extent (Pagination) (O) | Physical Description (O) | Series (O) | Language (R) | Notes (O)

  • Standard citation to a computer program on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk
    • Pearl ML, Steinmann SP, Hawkins RJ, editors. The athlete's shoulder [DVD]. Rosemont (IL): American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons; 2004. 2 DVDs: sound, color, 4 3/4 in.
    • Meader CR, Pribor HC. DiagnosisPro: the ultimate differential diagnosis assistant [CD-ROM]. Version 6.0. Los Angeles: MedTech USA; 2002. 1 CD-ROM: color, 4 3/4 in.
    • Nelson KN. Comprehensive body composition software [disk]. Release 1.0 for DOS. Champaign (IL): Human Kinetics, c1997. 1 computer disk: color, 3 1/2 in.
  • Standard citation to a computer program on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with optional content type
    • Pearl ML, Steinmann SP, Hawkins RJ, editors. The athlete's shoulder [computer program on DVD]. Rosemont (IL): American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons; 2004. 2 DVDs: sound, color, 4 3/4 in.
    • Meader CR, Pribor HC. DiagnosisPro: the ultimate differential diagnosis assistant [computer program on CD-ROM]. Version 6.0. Los Angeles: MedTech USA; 2002. 1 CD-ROM: color, 4 3/4 in.
    • Nelson KN. Comprehensive body composition software [computer program on disk]. Release 1.0 for DOS. Champaign (IL): Human Kinetics, c1997. 1 computer disk: color, 3 1/2 in.
  • Computer program on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with many authors
    • McCall RE, Tankersley CM, Behrens JA, Piper KE, Albay D, Chiang S, Matheson L, Davis D, Gratzer M, Orkand A, Astion M. PhlebotomyTUTOR: medical educational software [CD-ROM]. Version 1.0. Hagerstown (MD): Lippincott; c1998. 1 CD-ROM: color, 4 3/4 in.
  • Computer program on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with optional limit to the number of authors
    • McCall RE, Tankersley CM, Behrens JA, et al. PhlebotomyTUTOR: medical educational software [CD-ROM]. Version 1.0. Hagerstown (MD): Lippincott; c1998. 1 CD-ROM: color, 4 3/4 in.
    • or
    • McCall RE, Tankersley CM, Behrens JA, and others. PhlebotomyTUTOR: medical educational software [CD-ROM]. Version 1.0. Hagerstown (MD): Lippincott; c1998. 1 CD-ROM: color, 4 3/4 in.
  • Computer program on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk showing authors/editors with optional full first names
    • Schwid, Howard A. Critical care simulator 2001: improve your response to anesthetic emergencies [CD-ROM]. Issaquah (WA): Anesoft Corporation; c1995-2001. 1 CD-ROM: color, 4 3/4 in.
    • Pearl, Michael L.; Steinmann, Scott P.; Hawkins, Richard J., editors. The athlete's shoulder [DVD]. Rosemont (IL): American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons; 2004. 2 DVDs: sound, color, 4 3/4 in.
  • Computer program on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with editor(s) when there is no author
    • Pearl ML, Steinmann SP, Hawkins RJ, editors. The athlete's shoulder [DVD]. Rosemont (IL): American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons; 2004. 2 DVDs: sound, color, 4 3/4 in.
  • Computer program on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with organization as author/editor
    • Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. The total heart: the ultimate interactive guide to heart health [CD-ROM]. PC 1.1a version. Eagan (MN): IVI Pub.; 1993. 1 CD-ROM: sound, color, 4 3/4 in. Accompanied by: 1 manual.
  • Computer program on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with no authors or editors
    • Bloodborne pathogens: a sharper image [DVD]. Virginia Beach (VA): Coastal Training Technologies Corp.; 2005. 1 DVD: sound, color, 4 3/4 in.
  • Computer program on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with author affiliation included
    • Argyle B (Cottonwood Hospital Medical Center, Salt Lake City, UT). Chest pain simulator [disk]. Version 2.3. Alpine (UT): Mad Scientist Software; 1997. 1 computer disk: 3 1/2 in. Accompanied by: 1 guide.
  • Computer program title on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with subtitle
    • Dreher MA, Caputi L. ChartSmart II: mastering patient documentation [CD-ROM]. Windows release. Glen Ellyn (IL): College of DuPage, Multimedia Center; c1998. 6 CD-ROMs: color, 4 3/4 in. Accompanied by: 1 manual.
  • Computer program title on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with special characters
    • A*L*S paramedic study helper [CD-ROM]. Version 2.0. Middlebury (CT): Knightlite Software; 2002. 1 CD-ROM: sound, color, 4 3/4 in. Accompanied by: 1 user guide.
    • National Toxicology Program (US). National Toxicology Program's GlovES+: an expert system for selecting protective clothing against hazardous chemicals [disk]. Boca Raton (FL): Lewis Publishers; 1992. 1 computer disk: 3 1/2; 1 computer disk: 5 1/2 in.
  • Computer program title on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk in a language other than English
    • Leridon H. Pyramides animees: un programme de projections demographiques [disk]. Paris: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques; 1997. 1 computer disk: 3 1/2 in. Accompanied by: 1 guide. French.
  • Computer program title on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk in a language other than English with translation included
    • Leridon H. Pyramides animees: un programme de projections demographiques [Animated population pyramids: a program of population projections] [disk]. Paris: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques; 1997. 1 computer disk: 3 1/2 in. Accompanied by: 1 guide. French.
  • Computer program title on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk in two equal languages
    • SUMA: the supply management system = SUMA: el sistema para la gestion de suministros [CD-ROM]. Version 5.2a. FUNDESUMA, producer. Washington: Pan American Health Organization, Regional Office of the WHO; 2004 Feb. 1 CD-ROM: color, 4 3/4 in. English, Spanish.
  • Computer program title on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk in more than one medium
    • Signal 18 EMT-basic study helper [CD-ROM + disk]. New version 4.0. Middlebury (CT): Knightlite Software; 2005. 1 CD-ROM: sound, color, 4 3/4 in.; 1 computer disk: 3 1/2 in. Accompanied by: 1 user's guide.
  • Computer program on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with an edition or version
    • Physician's fee schedule software [CD-ROM]. Version 5.1. [place unknown]: Family Care Medical Centers; 2004. 1 CD-ROM: 4 3/4 in.
    • Iliad 4.5: diagnostic and reference tool for physicians and medical professionals [CD-ROM]. Version 4.5 for Windows. Salt Lake City (UT): Applied Medical Informatics; 1996. 1 CD-ROM: color, 4 3/4 in. Accompanied by: 1 guide.
    • Dreher MA, Caputi L. ChartSmart II: mastering patient documentation [CD-ROM]. Windows release. Glen Ellyn (IL): College of DuPage, Multimedia Center; c1998. 6 CD-ROMs: color, 4 3/4 in. Accompanied by: 1 manual.
    • Fire safety [disk]. Version 1 for Windows. Oakbrook Terrace (IL): Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations; c1997. 10 computer disks: color, 3 1/2 in. Accompanied by: 1 manual.
    • Green chemistry expert system [CD-ROM]. Version 0.99. [Washington]: Environmental Protection Agency (US), Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics; 1998 Nov. 1 CD-ROM: 4 3/4 in.
    • Sport care [CD-ROM]. Release 1.0. Champaign (IL): Human Kinetics; c2001. 1 CD-ROM: sound, color, 4 3/4 in. Accompanied by: 1 user manual.
    • Nelson KN. Comprehensive body composition software [disk]. Release 1.0 for DOS. Champaign (IL): Human Kinetics, c1997. 1 computer disk: color, 3 1/2 in. Accompanied by: 1 guide.
    • Nachreiner F, Grzech-Sukalo H, Hanecke K, Qin L, Dieckmann P, Eden J, Lochmann R. Arbeitszeit ergonomisch gestalten: eine Software zur Erstellung von Schichtplanen [CD-ROM]. 2. aktualisierte Aufl. Dortmund (Germany): Bundesanstalt fur Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin; 2000. 1 CD-ROM: 4 3/4 in. Accompanied by: 1 handbook. German.
  • Computer program on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with an edition and a version
    • MD-challenger: clinical reference & educational software for pediatric acute & emergent care [disk]. Pediatrics ed.; DOS version 2.1. Memphis (TN): Challenger Corporation; c1994. 2 computer disks: 3 1/2 in. Accompanied by: 1 guide.
  • Computer program on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with secondary author(s)
    • Reeder MM. Gamuts in radiology: an expert system for radiologists [CD-ROM]. Medical Interactive, producer. New York: Springer-Verlag; c1997. 1 CD-ROM: color, 4 3/4 in. Accompanied by: 1 guide.
    • SUMA: the supply management system = SUMA: el sistema para la gestion de suministros [CD-ROM]. Version 5.2a. FUNDESUMA, producer. Washington: Pan American Health Organization, Regional Office of the WHO; 2004. 1 CD-ROM: color, 4 3/4 in. English, Spanish.
  • Computer program on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with well-known place of publication
    • A-ware: multilingual simulation software for anaesthesiology [CD-ROM]. New York: Springer-Verlag; 2000. 1 CD-ROM: sound, color, 4 3/4 in.
  • Computer program on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with geographic qualifier added to place of publication for clarity
    • Argyle B. Chest pain simulator [disk]. Version 2.3. Alpine (UT): Mad Scientist Software; 1997. 1 computer disk: 3 1/2 in. Accompanied by: 1 guide.
  • Computer program on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with place of publication inferred
    • Green chemistry expert system [CD-ROM]. Version 0.99. [Washington]: Environmental Protection Agency (US), Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics; 1998 Nov. 1 CD-ROM: 4 3/4 in.
  • Computer program on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with no place of publication found
    • Physician's fee schedule software [CD-ROM]. Version 5.1. [place unknown]: Family Care Medical Centers; 2004. 1 CD-ROM: 4 3/4 in.
  • Computer program on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk showing publisher with subsidiary department/division
    • Medical statistics [disk]. Kansas City (MO): University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Evaluation Resource Center; 1988. 4 computer disks: 3 1/2 in. Accompanied by: 1 manual.
  • Computer program on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with government agency or other national body as publisher
    • HAZUS-MH: FEMA's software program for estimating potential losses from disasters [DVD]. Version 1.1. [Washington]: Federal Emergency Management Agency (US); 2005. 7 DVDs: color, 4 3/4 in.
  • Computer program on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with joint publishers
    • Fire safety [disk]. Version 1 for Windows. Oakbrook Terrace (IL): Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations; c1997. 10 computer disks: color, 3 1/2 in. Accompanied by: 1 manual. Joint publication of the Florida Hospital Association Information Services.
  • Computer program on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with standard date of publication
    • Meader CR, Pribor HC. DiagnosisPro: the ultimate differential diagnosis assistant [CD-ROM]. Version 6.0. Los Angeles: MedTech USA; 2002. 1 CD-ROM: color, 4 3/4 in. Accompanied by: 1 user's manual.
  • Computer program on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with month included in date of publication
    • SUMA: the supply management system = SUMA: el sistema para la gestion de suministros [CD-ROM]. Version 5.2a. FUNDESUMA, producer. Washington: Pan American Health Organization, Regional Office of the WHO; 2004 Feb. 1 CD-ROM: color, 4 3/4 in. English, Spanish.
  • Computer program on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with date range
    • Starkey C. ALFIE: injury reporting system [disk]. Version 3.00. Gardner (KS): Cramer Products, Inc.; 1985-1987. 2 computer disks: 5 1/4 in. Accompanied by: 1 manual.
    • Schwid HA. Critical care simulator 2001: improve your response to anesthetic emergencies [CD-ROM]. Issaquah (WA): Anesoft Corporation; c1995-2001. 1 CD-ROM: color, 4 3/4 in.
  • Computer program on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with date of copyright instead of date of publication
    • Law M, King G, Russell D, Stewart D, Hurley P, Bosch E. All about outcomes: an educational program to help you understand, evaluate, and choose adult outcome measures [CD-ROM]. Thorofare (NJ): SLACK Incorporated; c2001. 1 CD-ROM: color, 4 3/4 in.
  • Computer program on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with extent and physical description
    • A-ware: multilingual simulation software for anaesthesiology [CD-ROM]. New York: Springer-Verlag; 2000. 1 CD-ROM: sound, color, 4 3/4 in.
    • Starkey C. ALFIE: injury reporting system [disk]. Version 3.00. Gardner (KS): Cramer Products, Inc.; 1985-1987. 2 computer disks: 5 1/4 in. Accompanied by: 1 manual.
    • Fire safety [disk]. Version 1 for Windows. Oakbrook Terrace (IL): Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations; c1997. 10 computer disks: color, 3 1/2 in.
    • National Toxicology Program (US). National Toxicology Program's GlovES+: an expert system for selecting protective clothing against hazardous chemicals [disk]. Boca Raton (FL): Lewis Publishers; 1992. 1 computer disk: 3 1/2; 1 computer disk: 5 1/2 in.
    • Signal 18 EMT-basic study helper [CD-ROM + disk]. New version 4.0. Middlebury (CT): Knightlite Software; 2005. 1 CD-ROM: sound, color, 4 3/4 in.; 1 computer disk: 3 1/2 in. Accompanied by: 1 user's guide.
  • Computer program on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with a series
    • Medical statistics [disk]. Kansas City (MO): University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Evaluation Resource Center; 1988. 4 computer disks: 3 1/2 in. (UMKC software series). Accompanied by: 1 manual.
    • Leridon H. Pyramides animees: un programme de projections demographiques [disk]. Paris: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques; 1997. 1 computer disk: 3 1/2 in. (Methodes et savoirs; no. 1). Accompanied by: 1 guide. French.
  • Computer program on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with optional system requirements
    • Physician's fee schedule software [CD-ROM]. Version 5.1. [place unknown]: Family Care Medical Centers; 2004. 1 CD-ROM: 4 3/4 in. System Requirements: Pentium level computer with Microsoft Windows 98 or newer; Microsoft Excel 2000 or newer or Lotus 1-2-3 release 9/millennium edition or newer; CD drive.
    • Meader CR, Pribor HC. DiagnosisPro: the ultimate differential diagnosis assistant [CD-ROM]. Version 6.0. Los Angeles: MedTech USA; 2002. 1 CD-ROM: color, 4 3/4 in. Accompanied by: 1 user's manual. System Requirements: IBM-compatible PC (Pentium or higher); Windows 95, 98, NT, 2000, and XP; CD-ROM drive; 256 color or greater display monitor; 50 MB hard drive space.
  • Computer program on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with supplemental note included
    • DxR clinician problem-based learning software [CD-ROM]. Carbondale (IL): DxR Development Group; 2001. 1 CD-ROM: sound, color, 4 3/4 in. Accompanied by: 1 student user manual and 1 quick reference sheet.
    • Green chemistry expert system [CD-ROM]. Version 0.99. [Washington]: Environmental Protection Agency (US), Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics; 1998 Nov. 1 CD-ROM: 4 3/4 in. Available from: US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC; EP 1.104:C 42/CD.
    • SUMA: the supply management system = SUMA: el sistema para la gestion de suministros [CD-ROM]. Version 5.2a. FUNDESUMA, producer. Washington: Pan American Health Organization, Regional Office of the WHO; 2004 Feb. 1 CD-ROM: color, 4 3/4 in. English, Spanish. Located at: National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD; 2006 AV-0611.
    • Reeder MM. Gamuts in radiology: an expert system for radiologists [CD-ROM]. Medical Interactive, producer. New York: Springer-Verlag; c1997. 1 CD-ROM: color, 4 3/4 in. Accompanied by: 1 guide. ISBN: 0-387-14228-2.
    • A*L*S paramedic study helper [CD-ROM]. Version 2.0. Middlebury (CT): Knightlite Software; 2002. 1 CD-ROM: sound, color, 4 3/4 in. Accompanied by: 1 user guide. Software for fire fighters, EMTs, and paramedics.