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Citing biomedical documents - National Library of Medicine (NLM) style

Citing entire books
National Library of Medicine (NLM) style

Patrias K. Citing medicine: the NLM style guide for authors, editors, and publishers [Internet]. 2nd ed. Wendling DL, technical editor. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2007 [updated 2009 Oct 21; cited 2010 Apr 30]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/citingmedicine

Components/elements listed in the order they should appear in a reference: (R) = required, (O) = optional

Author/Editor (R) | Author Affiliation (O) | Title (R) | Content Type (O) | Type of Medium (R) | Edition (R) | Editor and other Secondary Authors (O) | Place of Publication (R) | Publisher (R) | Date of Publication (R) | Pagination (O) | Physical Description (O) | Series (O) | Language (R) | Notes (O)

  • Standard book with initials for authors
    • Jenkins PF. Making sense of the chest x-ray: a hands-on guide. New York: Oxford University Press; 2005. 194 p.
    • Eyre HJ, Lange DP, Morris LB. Informed decisions: the complete book of cancer diagnosis, treatment, and recovery. 2nd ed. Atlanta: American Cancer Society; c2002. 768 p.
  • Book authors with optional full first names given
    • Hamric, Ann B.; Spross, Judith A.; Hanson, Charlene M. Advanced practice nursing: an integrative approach. 3rd ed. St. Louis (MO): Elsevier Saunders; c2005. 979 p.
  • Book with many authors (list all)
    • Wenger NK, Sivarajan Froelicher E, Smith LK, Ades PA, Berra K, Blumenthal JA, Certo CME, Dattilo AM, Davis D, DeBusk RF, Drozda JP Jr, Fletcher BJ, Franklin BA, Gaston H, Greenland P, McBride PE, McGregor CGA, Oldridge NB, Piscatella JC, Rogers FJ. Cardiac rehabilitation. Rockville (MD): Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (US); 1995. 202 p.
  • Book with author/editor name having designations of rank in a family
    • Bodenheimer HC Jr, Chapman R. Q&A color review of hepatobiliary medicine. New York: Thieme; 2003. 192 p.
  • Book authors/editors with particles, prefixes, or prepositions in their names
    • O'Brien JA. Common problems in clinical laboratory management. New York: McGraw-Hill, Health Professions Division; c2000. 557 p.
  • Book authors/editors with compound last names having a hyphen
    • Lopez-Goni I, Moriyon I, editors. Brucella: molecular and cellular biology. Wymondham (England): Horizon Bioscience; c2004. 432 p.
  • Book authors/editors with compound last names without a hyphen
    • Garcia y Griego M, Verea Campos M. Mexico y Estados Unidos frente a la migracion de indocumentados. Mexico City: Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Coordinacion de Humanidades; 1988. 175 p. Spanish.
  • Book with editors or translators when there is no author
    • Izzo JL Jr, Black HR, editors. Hypertension primer: the essentials of high blood pressure. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2003. 532 p.
  • Book with author(s) and editor(s)/translator(s)/illustrator(s)
    • Stein E. Anorectal and colon diseases: textbook and color atlas of proctology. 1st Engl. ed. Burgdorf WH, translator. Berlin: Springer; c2003. 522 p.
  • Book with organization as author/editor
    • Advanced Life Support Group. Acute medical emergencies: the practical approach. London: BMJ Books; 2001. 454 p.
  • Book with organization as author/editor with place added for clarity
    • Beth Israel Hospital (Boston). Obstetrical decision making. Philadelphia: B.C. Decker; 1987. 320 p.
  • Book with organization as author and subsidiary department/division named
    • American Occupational Therapy Association, Ad Hoc Committee on Occupational Therapy Manpower. Occupational therapy manpower: a plan for progress. Rockville (MD): The Association; 1985 Apr. 84 p.
  • Book with organization as author which is also the publisher
    • Virginia Law Foundation, Committee on Continuing Legal Education. The medical and legal implications of AIDS. Charlottesville (VA): The Foundation; 1987. 148 p.
  • Book with organization as author which is also the publisher: as an option, the full publisher name may be given
    • Virginia Law Foundation, Committee on Continuing Legal Education. The medical and legal implications of AIDS. Charlottesville (VA): Virginia Law Foundation; 1987. 148 p.
  • Book with organization as author and an editor(s)
    • American Association of Neuroscience Nursing. AANN core curriculum for neuroscience nursing. Bader MK, Littlejohns LR, editors. 4th ed. St. Louis (MO): Saunders; c2004. 1038 p.
  • Book with organization as author/editor including a translation
    • Medicinska Forskningsradet [Medical Research Council] (SE). MFR och forskning om AIDS och HIV: oversyn och rekommendationer av medicinska forskingsradets AIDS-grupp [MFR and research on AIDS and HIV: overview and recommendations of the Medical Research Council's AIDS group]. Stockholm: The Council; 1988. 46 p. Swedish.
  • Book with multiple organizations as authors
    • National Lawyer's Guild AIDs Network (US); National Gay Rights Advocates (US). AIDS practice manual: a legal and educational guide. 2nd ed. San Francisco: The Network; 1988.
  • Book with no authors or editors
    • HIV/AIDs resources: a nationwide directory. 10th ed. Longmont (CO): Guides for Living; c2004. 792 p.
  • Book with author affiliation included
    • Oermann MH (College of Nursing, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI), Gaberson KB (Department of Nursing Education, Shepherd University, Shepherdstown, WV). Evaluation and testing in nursing education. 2nd ed. New York: Springer; c2006. 403 p.
  • Book title in a language other than English
    • Ochoa S. Base molecular de la expresion del mensaje genetico. Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas; 2000. 219 p. Spanish.
  • Book title in a language other than English with translation
    • Ochoa S. Base molecular de la expresion del mensaje genetico [Molecular basis of gene expression]. Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas; 2000. 219 p. Spanish.
  • Book published with equal text in two languages
    • Chemically-defined flavouring substances = Substances aromatisantes chimiquement definies. 4th ed. Strasbourg (France): Council of Europe; c2000. 616 p. English, French.
  • Book with text in multiple languages
    • Puig-Samper MA, Ruiz R, Galera Andres A, editors. Evolucionismo y cultura: darwinismo en Europa e Iberoamerica. Aranjuez (Spain): Ediciones Doce Calles; 2002. 407 p. Spanish, English, French, Portuguese.
  • Book with text in multiple languages with translation included
    • Puig-Samper MA, Ruiz R, Galera Andres A, editors. Evolucionismo y cultura: darwinismo en Europa e Iberoamerica [Evolution and culture: Darwinism in Europe and Latin America]. Aranjuez (Spain): Ediciones Doce Calles; 2002. 407 p. Spanish, English, French, Portuguese.
  • Book title with special characters: Greek letters may be written out if special fonts are not available
    • Huang YS, Ziboh VA, editors. γ-linolenic acid: recent advances in biotechnology and clinical applications. Champaign (IL): AOCS Press; 2001. 259 p.
    • or
    • Huang YS, Ziboh VA, editors. Gamma-linolenic acid: recent advances in biotechnology and clinical applications. Champaign (IL): AOCS Press; 2001. 259 p.
  • Book title with special characters: superscripts/subscripts may be enclosed within parentheses if fonts are not available
    • Schmidt KH, Manheim J. TiO2 nanoparticles. Weinheim (Germany): VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.; 2005. 278 p.
    • or
    • Schmidt KH, Manheim J. TiO(2) nanoparticles. Weinheim (Germany): VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.; 2005. 278 p.
  • Book with content type added
    • Liu-Ambrose TY. Studies of fall risk and bone morphology in older women with low bone mass [dissertation]. [Vancouver (BC)]: University of British Columbia; 2004. 290 p.
  • Book in a microform with type of medium given
    • Pennell S, editor. Women and medicine: remedy books, 1533-1865, from the Wellcome Library for the History and Understanding of Medicine, London [microfilm]. London: Wellcome Library for the History and Understanding of Medicine; c2004. 35 reels: black & white, negative, 35 mm.
  • Book with an edition
    • Modlin IM, Sachs G. Acid related diseases: biology and treatment. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2004. 522 p.
  • Book with an edition in a language other than English
    • Giberti F. Manuale di psichiatria: per studenti, medici, assistenti sociali, operatori psichiatrici. 5 ed. interamente rielaborata. Padova (Italy): Piccin; c2005. 599 p. Italian.
  • Book with well-known place of publication
    • Stocksley M. Abdominal ultrasound. San Francisco: Greenwich Medical Media; 2001. 286 p.
  • Book place of publication with geographic qualifier added for clarity
    • Minkler M. Community organizing and community building for health. 2nd ed. New Brunswick (NJ): Rutgers University Press; c2005. 489 p.
  • Book with place of publication inferred
    • Marquis DK. Advance care planning: a practical guide for physicians. [Chicago]: AMA Press; c2001. 105 p.
  • Book with unknown place of publication
    • Kuttner L. A child in pain: how to help, what to do. [place unknown]: Hartley & Marks; 1996. 271 p.
  • Book publisher with subsidiary department/division named
    • Kinzbrunner BM, Weinreb NJ, Policzer JS, editors. 20 common problems in end-of-life care. New York: McGraw-Hill, Medical Publishing Division; c2002. 446 p.
  • Book with government agency as publisher
    • Allison M, Hubbard RL, Rachal JV. Treatment process in methadone, residential, and outpatient drug free programs. Rockville (MD): National Institute on Drug Abuse (US), Division of Clinical Research; 1985. 89 p.
  • Book with joint publishers
    • Chandler F, editor. Herbs: everyday reference for health professionals. Ottawa: Canadian Pharmacists Association; c2000. 240 p. Co-published by the Canadian Medical Association.
  • Book with non-English publisher name including translation
    • Lindholm LH, Agenas I, Beerman B, Berglund G, Dahlgren H, Elmfeldt D, de Faire U, Jern S, Hjemdahl P, Johannesson M, Jonsson E, Jonsson B, Kahan T, Lundvall O, Samuelsson O, Svardsudd K, Waaler HT, Werko L, Aberg H. Mattligt forhojt blodtryck [Moderately elevated blood pressure]. Stockholm: Statens Beredning for Utvardering av Medicinsk Metodik [Swedish Council on Technology Assessment in Health Care]; 1994. 340 p. Swedish.
  • Book with unknown publisher
    • Maldonado Ballon R. Sexualidad y reproduccion humana: vision medica; enciclopedia. 5a ed. La Paz (Bolivia): [publisher unknown]; 1988. 4 vol. Spanish.
  • Book with unknown place of publication and publisher
    • Amjad H, translator. On the joints, arthritic pain: an early 13th century treatise on arthritis. [place unknown: publisher unknown]; 1996. 13 p.
  • Book with multiple dates of publication
    • Chang TM. Blood substitutes: principles, methods, products, and clinical trials. New York: Karger Landes Systems; 1997-1998. 2 vol.
  • Book with date of copyright instead of date of publication
    • Modlin IM, Sachs G. Acid related diseases: biology and treatment. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2004. 522 p.
  • Book with date of publication and date of copyright
    • Research Task Force on Risk-Based Inservice Testing Guidelines. Risk-based testing: development of guidelines. New York: American Society of Mechanical Engineers; 2000, c1996.
  • Book with estimated date of publication
    • Pathak L, editor. Echocardiography non invasive diagnosis. Bombay: Cardiological Society of India; [1980?].
  • Book with unknown date of publication
    • Marcuzzi A. Alimentazione: risorse e possibilita. Bologna (Italy): Malipiero S.p.A. Editore; [date unknown]. 72 p. Italian.
  • Book with unknown place, publisher, and date of publication
    • Steriu D, Stefanoiu V. Terapia si combaterea zoonozelor parazitare. [place, publisher, date unknown]. 205 p. Romanian.
  • Book with standard pagination
    • Annas GJ. American bioethics: crossing human rights and health law boundaries. New York: Oxford University Press; 2005. 244 p.
  • Book published in more than one volume
    • Hamilton S, editor. Animal welfare & antivivisection 1870-1910: nineteenth century women's mission. London: Routledge; 2004. 3 vol.
  • Book with no numbers on the pages
    • Howell E. Access to children's mental health services under Medicaid and SCHIP. Washington: Urban Institute; c2004. 7 leaves.
  • Book in a series with a number given
    • Indryan A, Sarmukaddam SB. Medical biostatistics. New York: Marcel Dekker; c2001. 645 p. (Biostatistics; 7).
  • Book in a series without a number
    • Evans LK, Lang NM, editors. Academic nursing practice. New York: Springer; c2004. 278 p. (Springer series on the teaching of nursing).
  • Book in a series with editor(s)
    • Forsman RB, editor. Administration and management in health sciences libraries. Lanham (MD): Medical Library Association; c2000. 222 p. (Bunting A, editor. Current practice in health sciences librarianship; vol. 8).
  • Book in multiple series
    • Rugg DL, Peersman G, Carael M, editors. Global advances in HIV/AIDS monitoring and evaluation. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass; c2004. 180 p. (New directions for evaluation; no. 103); (Jossey-Bass education series).
  • Book published also as a journal issue
    • Cardena E, Croyle K, editors. Acute reactions to trauma and psychotherapy: a multidisciplinary and international perspective. Binghamton (NY): Haworth Medical Press; 2005. 130 p. (Journal of trauma & dissociation; vol. 6, no. 2).
  • Book accompanied by a CD-ROM or other medium
    • Franco KL, Verrier ED, editors. Advanced therapy in cardiac surgery. 2nd ed. Hamilton (ON): B.C. Decker; 2003. 642 p. Accompanied by: 1 CD-ROM.
  • Book assigned an International Standard Book Number (ISBN)
    • Stern SD, Cifu AS, Altkorn D. Symptom to diagnosis: an evidence-based guide. New York: Lange Medical Books; c2006. 434 p. ISBN: 9780071463898.
  • Book available from a distributor
    • What kind of birth control is best for you? Rockville (MD): Food and Drug Administration (US); 2000. 12 p. Available from: US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC; HE 20.4050:B 53/2000.
  • Book with information on a library where it may be found
    • Lederer J. Alimentation et cancer. 3e ed. Brussels: Nauwelaerts; [1986?]. 315 p. French. Located at: National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD; FF9414.
  • Book with other note included
    • McRae J. AIDS, agencies and drug abuse: the Edinburgh experience. Norwich (England): Social Work Monographs; 1989. 40 p. Revised version of a dissertation originally submitted as part of an MSc. in applied social studies at Oxford University.
    • Stahl PH, Wermuth CG, editors. Handbook of pharmaceutical salts: properties, selection, and use. New York: Wiley-VCH; c2002. 374 p. Prepared for the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry.
    • Amjad H, translator. On the joints, arthritic pain: an early 13th century treatise on arthritis. [place unknown: publisher unknown]; 1996. 13 p. Translation from the Arabic of the work by Al-Sammarqandi.
    • Palazzo RE, Davis TN, editors. Centrosomes and spindle pole bodies. San Diego: Academic Press; c2001. 375 p. 16 pages of plates, some color.