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Citing biomedical documents - National Library of Medicine (NLM) style

Citing entire databases/retrieval systems on the Internet
National Library of Medicine (NLM) style

Patrias K. Citing medicine: the NLM style guide for authors, editors, and publishers [Internet]. 2nd ed. Wendling DL, technical editor. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2007 [updated 2009 Oct 21; cited 2010 Apr 30]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/citingmedicine

Components/elements listed in the order they should appear in a reference: (R) = required, (O) = optional

Author/Editor (R) | Author Affiliation (O) | Title (R) | Content Type (O) | Type of Medium (R) | Edition (R) | Editor and other Secondary Authors (O) | Place of Publication (R) | Publisher (R) | Date of Publication (R) | Date of Update/Revision (R) | Date of Citation (R) | Availability (R) | Language (R) | Notes (O)

  • Standard citation to an open serial database on the Internet
    • Online Archive of American Folk Medicine [Internet]. Los Angeles: Regents of the University of California. 1996 - [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.folkmed.ucla.edu/.
    • PeriStats [Internet]. White Plains (NY): March of Dimes Perinatal Data Center. c2007 - [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.marchofdimes.com/peristats/.
  • Standard citation to an open serial database on the Internet with optional content type
    • TrialSearch [database on the Internet]. New York: AIDS Community Research Initiative of America. c2003 - [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.acria.org/clinical_trials/.
  • Standard citation to a closed serial database on the Internet
    • EARSS: the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System [Internet]. Bilthoven (Netherlands): RIVM. 2001 - 2005 [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.rivm.nl/earss/.
    • DocFinder [Internet]. [place unknown]: Administrators in Medicine. c1997 - c2005 [cited 2007 Feb 2]. Available from: http://www.docboard.org/docfinder.html
  • Standard citation to a closed serial database on the Internet with optional content type
    • EARSS: the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System [database on the Internet]. Bilthoven (Netherlands): RIVM. 2001 - 2005 [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.rivm.nl/earss/.
  • Standard citation to a single database on the Internet
    • Jablonski S. Online Multiple Congenital Anomaly/Mental Retardation (MCA/MR) Syndromes [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US), Medical Subject Headings Section; 2001 Apr [updated 2001 Nov 20; cited 2007 Jan 31]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/archive//20061212/mesh/jablonski/syndrome_db.html
    • Database of Human Disease Causing Gene Homologues in Dictyostelium Discoideum [Internet]. San Diego (CA): San Diego Supercomputer Center; 2003 [modified 2003 Mar 30; cited 2007 Feb 2]. Available from: http://dictyworkbench.sdsc.edu/HDGDD/.
  • Standard citation to a single database on the Internet with optional content type
    • Jablonski S. Online Multiple Congenital Anomaly/Mental Retardation (MCA/MR) Syndromes [database on the Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US), Medical Subject Headings Section; 2001 Apr [updated 2001 Nov 20; cited 2007 Jan 31]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/archive//20061212/mesh/jablonski/syndrome_db.html
  • Standard citation to a retrieval system on the Internet
    • DialogWeb [Internet]. Version 2.5. Cary (NC): The Dialog Corporation. c1997 - [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.dialogweb.com/.
  • Standard citation to a retrieval system on the Internet with optional content type
    • DialogWeb [retrieval system on the Internet]. Version 2.5. Cary (NC): The Dialog Corporation. c1997 - [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.dialogweb.com/.
  • Database/retrieval system on the Internet with an individual(s) as author
    • Blaxter M. BaNG: Nematode and Neglected Genomics [Internet]. Version 2.03. Edinburgh (UK): University of Edinburgh, Institute of Evolutionary Biology. [date unknown] - [updated 2006 Jun 22; cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.nematodes.org/.
  • Database/retrieval system on the Internet with optional full names for author
    • Jablonski, Stanley. Online Multiple Congenital Anomaly/Mental Retardation (MCA/MR) Syndromes [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US), Medical Subject Headings Section; 2001 Apr [updated 2001 Nov 20; cited 2007 Jan 31]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/archive//20061212/mesh/jablonski/syndrome_db.html
    • Gilliland, Gary; Tung, Michael; Ladner, Jane. BMCD: Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database [Internet]. Test ed. 4.0. Gaithersburg (MD): National Institute of Standards and Technology. c1995 - [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://xpdb.nist.gov:8060/BMCD4/.
  • Database/retrieval system on the Internet with an organization as author
    • American Diabetes Association. Genetics of Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes: the GENNID Study [Internet]. Version 3.0.927. Camden (NJ): Coriell Institute for Medical Research. c1977 - [updated 2005 Jun 1; cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://ccr.coriell.org/ada/.
  • Database/retrieval system on the Internet with editors where there is no author
    • Rotchford JK, editor. Acubriefs.com [Internet]. Port Townsend (WA): Best of Both Worlds Foundation. [date unknown] - [modified 2006 Jul; cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.acubriefs.com/.
  • Database/retrieval system on the Internet with no authors or editors
    • Rat Atlas [Internet]. Los Angeles: University of California, Los Angeles, Laboratory of Neuro Imaging. c2007 - [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.loni.ucla.edu/Atlases/Atlas_Detail.jsp?atlas_id=1
  • Database/retrieval system on the Internet with author affiliation
    • Allender S (British Heart Foundation Health Promotion Research Group, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK), Peto V, Rayner M, Scarborough P, Boxer A. heartstats: British Heart Foundation Statistics Database [Internet]. London: British Heart Foundation. c2003 - [updated 2006 Nov 3; cited 2007 Feb 2]. Available from: http://www.heartstats.org/.
  • Database/retrieval system on the Internet title with subtitle
    • BELIT: Bioethics Literature Database [Internet]. Bonn (Germany): German Reference Centre for Ethics in the Life Sciences. [date unknown] - [updated 2006 Sep 9; cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.drze.de/BELIT?la=en
  • Database/retrieval system on the Internet title with sections
    • Faculty of 1000. Medicine [Internet]. London: Medicine Reports Ltd. c2007 - [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.f1000medicine.com/.
    • Faculty of 1000. Biology [Internet]. London: Biology Reports Ltd. c1999 - [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.f1000biology.com/.
  • Database/retrieval system on the Internet title with upper/lowercase letters and symbols
    • bioProtocol: a Bio Online Site [Internet]. Emeryville (CA): Bio.Com. c1992 - [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://bioprotocol.bio.com/protocolstools/index.jhtml
    • PDQ: NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Cancer Institute (US). [date unknown] - [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/cancerdatabase
    • GReTA [Internet]. Berlin: Humboldt-Universitat zu Berlin, Zentrum fur transdisziplinare Geschlechterstudien. 1989 - [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://141.20.150.23:2200/start.fau?prj=ifaust German.
    • MEDMARX [Internet]. Version 6.5. Rockville (MD): United States Pharmacopeial Convention, Inc. c2007 - [updated 1999 Aug 6; cited 2007 Jan 31]. Available from: https://www.medmarx.com/.
    • Aspergillus nidulans Database [Internet]. Cambridge (MA): Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Broad Institute, Center for Genome Research. 2003 - [updated 2007 Jan 10; cited 2007 Feb 21]. Available from: http://www.broad.mit.edu/annoitation/fungi/aspergillus/.
    • ClinicalTrials.gov [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US). 2000 Feb 29 - [cited 2007 Feb 21]. Available from: http://clinicaltrials.gov/.
    • intute: health & life sciences [Internet]. Nottingham (UK): University of Nottingham. c2006 - [cited 2007 Feb 23]. Available from: http://www.intute.ac.uk/healthandlifesciences/.
  • Database/retrieval system on the Internet with title ending in other than a period
    • Is Your Doctor Certified? [Internet]. Evanston (IL): American Board of Medical Specialties. c2006 - [updated 2006 Mar 17; cited 2007 Jan 31]. Available from: http://www.abms.org/newsearch.asp
  • Database/retrieval system on the Internet in a language other than English
    • Sistema Informativo Sanitario [Internet]. Rome: Ministero della Salute, Direzione General del Sistema Informativo e Statistico. 1997 - [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.ministerosalute.it/servizio/datisis.jsp Italian.
  • Database/retrieval system on the Internet in a language other than English with translation included
    • Sistema Informativo Sanitario [Health Information System] [Internet]. Rome: Ministero della Salute, Direzione General del Sistema Informativo e Statistico. 1997 - [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.ministerosalute.it/servizio/datisis.jsp Italian.
  • Database/retrieval system on the Internet in multiple languages
    • ORPHANET: Maladies Rares, Medicaments Orphelins [Internet]. Paris: INSERM. 1997 - [cited 2007 Feb 23]. Available from: http://www.orpha.net/. French, German, Spanish, English, Italian, Portuguese.
  • Database/retrieval system on the Internet published with equal text in two languages
    • Cardiovascular Disease Surveillance On-line = Surveillance des Maladies Cardio-vasculaires en Direct [Internet]. Ottawa (ON): Public Health Agency of Canada. [1950] - [updated 2002 Jul 30; cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://dsol-smed.phac-aspc.gc.ca/dsol-smed/cvd/index%5Fe.html English, French.
  • Database/retrieval system on the Internet with an edition or version
    • MEDMARX [Internet]. Version 6.5. Rockville (MD): United States Pharmacopeial Convention, Inc. c2007 - [updated 1999 Aug 6; cited 2007 Jan 31]. Available from: https://www.medmarx.com/.
    • Biozon [Internet]. Release 2.4. Ithaca (NY): Cornell University. c2005 - [updated 2006 Aug; cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.biozon.org/.
    • AnAge: the Animal Ageing Database [Internet]. Build 9. [Boston (MA)]: Joao Pedro de Magalhaes. c2002 - [updated 2006 Feb 26; cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://genomics.senescence.info/species/.
    • Gilliland G, Tung M, Ladner J. BMCD: Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database [Internet]. Test ed. 4.0. Gaithersburg (MD): National Institute of Standards and Technology (US). c1995 - [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://xpdb.nist.gov:8060/BMCD4/.
    • The Comprehensive Microbial Resource [Internet]. Date release 20.0; Website release 3.0. [place unknown]: Institute for Genomic Research. 2000 - [updated 2006 Sep 27; cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://cmr.tigr.org/tigr-scripts/CMR/CmrHomePage.cgi
  • Database/retrieval system on the Internet with well known place of publication
    • Current Controlled Trials [Internet]. London: BioMed Central. [date unknown] - [cited 2007 Jan 31]. Available from: http://www.controlled-trials.com/.
  • Database/retrieval system on the Internet with geographic qualifier added to place of publication for clarity
    • The Cochrane Library [Internet]. Hoboken (NJ): Wiley InterScience. c1999 - [cited 2007 Jan 31]. Available from: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/mrwhome/106568753/HOME?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0
  • Database/retrieval system on the Internet with place of publication inferred
    • The GDB Human Genome Database [Internet]. [Research Triangle Park (NC)]: RTI International. 1998 - [cited 2007 Feb 22]. Available from: http://www.gdb.org/.
    • Patrocles: the database of polymorphic miRNA-target interactions [Internet]. Version 1.0. [Liege (Belgium)]: Unit Animal Genomics. [date unknown] - [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.patrocles.org/Patrocles.htm
  • Database/retrieval system on the Internet with unknown place of publication
    • Pfam [Internet]. Version 21.0. [place unknown]: Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. [date unknown] - [updated Nov 2006; cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.sanger.ac.uk/Software/Pfam/.
  • Database/retrieval system on the Internet with publisher having subsidiary division
    • Antimicrobial Resistance Information Bank [Internet]. Geneva: World Health Organization, Department of Communicable Disease Surveillance and Response, Anti-infective Drug Resistance and Containment Team. 1999 - [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://rhone.b3e.jussieu.fr/arinfobank/ResistanceDataSearch.php
  • Database/retrieval system on the Internet with government agency or other national body as publisher
    • REHABDATA [Internet]. Lanham (MD): National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (US), National Rehabilitation Information Center. [1956] - [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.naric.com/research/rehab/default.cfm
  • Database/retrieval system on the Internet with joint publication
    • WormBase: the Biology and Genome of C. elegans [Internet]. Release WS170. [Pasadena (CA)]: California Institute of Technology. c1999 - [updated 2007 Jan 19; cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.wormbase.org/. Jointly published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Washington University at St. Louis, and The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute.
  • Database/retrieval system on the Internet with standard date of publication
    • Database of Human Disease Causing Gene Homologues in Dictyostelium Discoideum [Internet]. San Diego (CA): San Diego Supercomputer Center; 2003 [modified 2003 Mar 30; cited 2007 Feb 2]. Available from: http://dictyworkbench.sdsc.edu/HDGDD/.
    • Antimicrobial Resistance Information Bank [Internet]. Geneva: World Health Organization, Department of Communicable Disease Surveillance and Response, Anti-infective Drug Resistance and Containment Team. 1999 - [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://rhone.b3e.jussieu.fr/arinfobank/ResistanceDataSearch.php
  • Database/retrieval system on the Internet with month/day included in date of publication
    • Swiss Life Sciences Database [Internet]. Zurich (Switzerland): Venture Valuation AG. 2003 Mar - [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.swisslifesciences.ch/page/index.html
    • Ribosomal Database Project II [Internet]. Release 9.47. East Lansing (MI): Michigan State University. 2002 Sep 13 - [updated 2007 Feb 1; cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://rdp.cme.msu.edu
  • Database/retrieval system on the Internet with multiple years
    • EARSS: the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System [Internet]. Bilthoven (Netherlands): RIVM. 2001 - 2005 [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.rivm.nl/earss/.
    • DocFinder [Internet]. [place unknown]: Administrators in Medicine. c1997 - c2005 [cited 2007 Feb 2]. Available from: http://www.docboard.org/docfinder.html
  • Database/retrieval system on the Internet with date of copyright instead of date of publication
    • Biozon [Internet]. Release 2.4. Ithaca (NY): Cornell University. c2005 - [updated 2006 Aug; cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.biozon.org/.
    • DocFinder [Internet]. [place unknown]: Administrators in Medicine. c1997 - c2005 [cited 2007 Feb 2]. Available from: http://www.docboard.org/docfinder.html
  • Database/retrieval system on the Internet with date obtained from earliest material in it
    • PubMed [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US). [1950] - [cited 2007 Jan 31]. Available from: http://pubmed.gov/.
  • Database/retrieval system on the Internet with date estimated
    • Nederlands Trialregister [Internet]. Amsterdam (Netherlands): Dutch Cochrane Centre. [2005?] - [cited 2007 Feb 23]. Available from: http://www.trialregister.nl/. Dutch.
    • The Digital Database for Screening Mammography [Internet]. Tampa (FL): University of South Florida. [1999 - 2000?] [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://marathon.csee.usf.edu/Mammography/Database.html
  • Database/retrieval system on the Internet with unknown date
    • The Internet Acronym Server [Internet]. Cork (Ireland): Simaril Information Management Consultants. [date unknown] - [cited 2007 Jan 31]. Available from: http://silmaril.ie/cgi-bin/uncgi/acronyms
  • Database/retrieval system on the Internet with update/revision date
    • Health Library for Disasters [Internet]. Version 3.0. Geneva: World Health Organization. 2003 - [updated 2006 May; cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.helid.desastres.net/.
    • Rotchford JK, editor. Acubriefs.com [Internet]. Port Townsend (WA): Best of Both Worlds Foundation. [date unknown] - [modified 2006 Jul; cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.acubriefs.com/.
    • Database of Human Disease Causing Gene Homologues in Dictyostelium Discoideum [Internet]. San Diego (CA): San Diego Supercomputer Center; 2003 [modified 2003 Mar 30; cited 2007 Feb 2]. Available from: http://dictyworkbench.sdsc.edu/HDGDD/.
    • Cornell University Poisonous Plants Informational Database [Internet]. Ithaca (NY): Cornell University, Department of Animal Science. [date unknown] - [updated 2006 Oct 27; cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.ansci.cornell.edu/plants/index.html
  • Database/retrieval system on the Internet with multiple URLs
    • WHOSIS: WHO Statistical Information System [Internet]. Geneva: World Health Organization. c2007 - [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.who.int/whosis/en/ ; http://www.who.int/whosis/fr/index.html English, French.
  • Database/retrieval system on the Internet with optional system requirements
    • MEDMARX [Internet]. Version 6.5. Rockville (MD): United States Pharmacopeial Convention, Inc. c2007 - [updated 1999 Aug 6; cited 2007 Jan 31]. Available from: https://www.medmarx.com/. System Requirements: Windows 95 or higher; 200-megaHertz Pentium or higher; Random Access Memory 128-megabytes or higher; Modem Speed 56 Kilobits per second or higher; 20-MB hard disk space; 17-inch video graphics array; 800 x 600 pixels/high with color; Adobe Acrobat Reader 5.0; Internet Explorer 6.0 or higher.
    • FlyBase: a Database of Drosophila Genes & Genomes [Internet]. Version FB2006_01. Bloomington (IN): Indiana University. 2006 Dec 8 - [cited 2007 Feb 21]. Available from: http://flybase.bio.indiana.edu/. System Requirements: Compatible with Internet Explorer Mac 5.2 and Internet Explorer 6; Internet Explorer 7 is incompatible.
  • Database/retrieval system on the Internet that continues another database
    • BOND: the Biomolecular Object Network Databank [Internet]. Toronto (ON): Unleashed Informatics. 2006 Oct - [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from:http://bond.unleashedinformatics.com/. Continues: DogBox.
  • Database/retrieval system on the Internet with supplemental note included
    • Is Your Doctor Certified? [Internet]. Evanston (IL): American Board of Medical Specialties. c2006 - [updated 2006 Mar 17; cited 2007 Jan 31]. Available from: http://www.abms.org/newsearch.asp Registration and login required.
    • PDQ: NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Cancer Institute (US). [date unknown] - [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/cancerdatabase PDQ stands for Physician Data Query.
    • EARSS: the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System [Internet]. Bilthoven (Netherlands): RIVM. 2001 - 2005 [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.rivm.nl/earss/. RIVM is the Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu.
    • BELIT: Bioethics Literature Database [Internet]. Bonn (Germany): German Reference Centre for Ethics in the Life Sciences. [date unknown] - [updated 2006 Sep 9; cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.drze.de/BELIT?la=en Provides access to about 320,000 records from the integrated German, American, and French databases.
    • Reinhardt V, Reinhardt A. Environmental Enrichment for Primates: Annotated Database on Environmental Enrichment and Refinement of Husbandry for Nonhuman Primates [Internet]. Washington: Animal Welfare Institute. 1998 Jul 1 - [updated 2006 Dec 8; cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.awionline.org/Lab_animals/biblio/enrich.htm Comprises published articles, abstracts, book chapters, books, as well as published photographs, slide sets, videotapes, and selected Web site information.
    • Federal Research in Progress Database (FEDRIP) [Internet]. Springfield (VA): Department of Commerce (US), National Technical Information Service. [date unknown] - [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://grc.ntis.gov/fedrip.htm Updated monthly. Subscription required, but free trials are available.
    • GReTA [Internet]. Berlin: Humboldt-Universitat zu Berlin, Zentrum fur transdisziplinare Geschlechterstudien. 1989 - [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://141.20.150.23:2200/start.fau?prj=ifaust German. Database of German women's studies.
    • Pfam [Internet]. Version 21.0. [place unknown]: Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. [date unknown] - [updated Nov 2006; cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.sanger.ac.uk/Software/Pfam/. Pfam is a large collection of multiple sequence alignments and hidden Markov models covering many common protein domains and families.
    • WormBase: the Biology and Genome of C. elegans [Internet]. Release WS170. [Pasadena (CA)]: California Institute of Technology. c1999 - [updated 2007 Jan 19; cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.wormbase.org/. Supported by a grant from the National Human Genome Research Institute at the US National Institutes of Health # P41 HG02223 and the British Medical Research Council.
    • bioProtocol: a Bio Online Site [Internet]. Emeryville (CA): Bio.Com. c1992 - [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://bioprotocol.bio.com/protocolstools/index.jhtml Protocols contributed by scientists from over 125 academic laboratories.