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Citing biomedical documents - National Library of Medicine (NLM) style

Citing entire dissertations and theses
National Library of Medicine (NLM) style

Patrias K. Citing medicine: the NLM style guide for authors, editors, and publishers [Internet]. 2nd ed. Wendling DL, technical editor. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2007 [updated 2009 Oct 21; cited 2010 Apr 30]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/citingmedicine

Components/elements listed in the order they should appear in a reference: (R) = required, (O) = optional

Author (R) | Title (R) | Content Type (O) | Type of Medium (R) | Place of Publication (R) | Publisher (R) | Date of Publication (R) | Pagination (O) | Physical Description (O) | Language (R) | Notes (O)

  • Standard dissertation
    • Jones DL. The role of physical activity on the need for revision total knee arthroplasty in individuals with osteoarthritis of the knee [dissertation]. [Pittsburgh (PA)]: University of Pittsburgh; 2001. 436 p.
  • Standard master's thesis
    • Roguskie JM. The role of Pseudomonas aeruginosa 1244 pilin glycan in virulence [master's thesis]. [Pittsburgh (PA)]: Duquesne University; 2005. 111 p.
  • Dissertation or thesis with optional full name(s) for author
    • Baldwin, Karen Brandt. An exploratory method of data retrieval from the electronic medical record for the evaluation of quality in healthcare [dissertation]. Chicago: University of Illinois at Chicago, Health Sciences Center; 2004. 116 p.
  • Dissertation or thesis with more than one author (rare)
    • Kolotylo C, MacDonald JM. Exploration of the relationships among personal and illness-related factors, migraine headache pain, the chronic pain experience, coping, depressive symptomatology, disability, and quality of life in women with migraine headache [dissertation]. [Milwaukee (WI)]: University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee; 1999. 295 p.
  • Dissertation or thesis with authors showing designations of rank within the family
    • Daugherty RH 3rd. Social work education and public assistance workers in Kentucky 1936-2001 [dissertation]. Louisville (KY): University of Louisville; 2004. 203 p.
  • Dissertation or thesis with titles ending in punctuation other than a period
    • Boyer CL. Do rural Medicare patients have different post-acute service patterns than their non-rural counterparts? [dissertation]. [Cleveland (OH)]: Case Western Reserve University; 2004. 131 p.
  • Dissertation or thesis with titles containing a chemical formula, Greek letter, or other special characters
    • Martin EJ. 1,1-dichloroethylene-induced mitochondrial aberrations precede apoptotic and necrotic cell death in murine liver and lung [dissertation]. Kingston (ON): Queen's University; 2004. 149 p.
  • Dissertation or thesis with titles containing Greek letter: Greek letters may be written out if special fonts are not available
    • Goel R. Characterization of α-thrombin-induced rapid phase of PI 3-kinase [dissertation]. St. Louis (MO): Saint Louis University; 2004. 141 p.
    • or
    • Goel R. Characterization of alpha-thrombin-induced rapid phase of PI 3-kinase [dissertation]. St. Louis (MO): Saint Louis University; 2004. 141 p.
  • Dissertation or thesis with special characters: superscripts/subscripts may be enclosed within parentheses if fonts not available
    • Uddemarri S. Aging affects stretch-induced p70S6k and 4E-BP1 phosphorylation in fast- and slow-twitch muscle [master's thesis]. [Huntington (WV)]: Marshall University; 2005. 151 p.
    • or
    • Uddemarri S. Aging affects stretch-induced p70(S6k) and 4E-BP1 phosphorylation in fast- and slow-twitch muscle [master's thesis]. [Huntington (WV)]: Marshall University; 2005. 151 p.
  • Dissertation or thesis with non-English titles
    • Montes Alvarez MJ. Parametros predictivos de complicaciones macroangiopaticos en la diabetes mellitus tipo 2 que precisa insulinoterapia [dissertation]. Cadiz (Spain): Universidad de Cadiz; 2005. 180 p. Spanish.
  • Dissertation or thesis with non-English titles, with translation
    • Montes Alvarez MJ. Parametros predictivos de complicaciones macroangiopaticos en la diabetes mellitus tipo 2 que precisa insulinoterapia [Predictive parameters for macroangiopathy complications in Type 2 diabetes which requires insulin] [dissertation]. Cadiz (Spain): Universidad de Cadiz; 2005. 180 p. Spanish.
  • Dissertation or thesis in a microform
    • Brill S. Hygieia: health and medicine in Plato's Republic [dissertation on microfilm]. [College Park (PA)]: Pennsylvania State University; 2004. 311 p. 1 reel: black & white, negative, 35 mm.
    • Johnston PG. A survey of nursing school libraries in the city of Philadelphia [master's thesis on microcard]. Philadelphia: Drexel Institute of Technology; 1955. 55 p. 3 microcards: 3 x 5 in.
  • Dissertation or thesis with place of publication not found on title page
    • Campbell E. Childbearing and choice: views of young Chinese professional women [dissertation]. [Claremont (CA)]: Claremont Graduate University; 1996. 147 p.
  • Dissertation or thesis publisher with subsidiary part included
    • Metry KJ. NAT polymorphism in breast cancer risk [master's thesis]. Louisville (KY): University of Louisville, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology; 2004. 71 p.
  • Dissertation or thesis issued by a governmental body
    • Schauppner CE. Some ramifications of compensation limitations in personal services contracts for direct health care providers [master's thesis]. Monterey (CA): Naval Postgraduate School (US); 1990. 74 p.
  • Dissertation or thesis issued by other than a university
    • Kan H. Does the Medicare principal inpatient diagnostic cost group model adequately adjust for selection bias? [dissertation]. Santa Monica (CA): RAND Graduate School; 2002. 101 p.
  • Dissertation or thesis date with month included
    • Korir J, Karr-Kidwell PJ. The relationship between self esteem and effective educational leadership: a literary review, recommendations, and interviews [master's thesis]. [Denton (TX)]: Texas Woman's University; 2000 May. 98 p.
  • Dissertation or thesis date with season
    • Lemov RM. The laboratory imagination: experiments in human and social engineering. [Berkeley (CA)]: University of California, Berkeley; 2000 Spring. 2 vol.
  • Dissertation or thesis submitted in more than one volume
    • Hanson CA. Embodying erudition: English art, medicine, & antiquarianism in the age of empiricism [dissertation]. [Chicago]: University of Chicago, Department of Art History; 2003. 2 vol.
  • Dissertation or thesis with availability statement included
    • Boyer CL. Do rural Medicare patients have different post-acute service patterns than their non-rural counterparts? [dissertation]. [Cleveland (OH)]: Case Western Reserve University; 2004. 131 p. Available from: UMI, Ann Arbor, MI; AAT 3145345.
  • Dissertation or thesis with location of a library or other holding institution where the dissertation/thesis may be found
    • Akerstrom B. Adults with autism and mental retardation: a life-span perspective [dissertation]. Uppsala (Sweden): S. Academiae Upsaliensis; 2001. 156 p. Located at: National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD; W1 AC955 v.20 2001.
  • Dissertation or thesis with note on specific type of degree
    • Ari AB. Eye injuries on the battlefields of Iraq and Afghanistan: public health implications [master's thesis]. Anchorage (AK): University of Alaska; 2005. 48 p. Master of Public Health.
    • Verhovsek EL. Examining stages in curriculum change: implementation of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) [dissertation]. [Morgantown (WV)]: West Virginia University; 2003. 197 p. Doctor of Education.
  • Dissertation or thesis with sponsorship or support note included
    • Kanika K. Labor market implications of employer provided health insurance [dissertation]. Evanston (IL): Northwestern University; 1997. 204 p. Sponsored by the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research.
    • Tuitele BA. The current practices in injury prevention and safety helmet use in an Air Force medical center [master's thesis]. [Bethesda (MD)]: Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences; 2000. 59 p. Supported by the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Protocol No. T061AK-01.
  • Dissertation or thesis accompanied by a CD-ROM, DVD, or other medium
    • Lukasik-Sedmak DM. How to develop an interactive MRI brain cross-sectional anatomy CD-ROM and Web-based educational materials to meet the needs of medical imaging specialists working in magnetic resonance imaging [dissertation]. [Milwaukee (WI)]: Cardinal Stritch University; 2002. 113 p. Accompanied by: 1 CD-ROM.
  • Dissertation or thesis with supplemental material on the Internet
    • Wyatt TH. Pilot testing Okay with Asthma(TM): a digital story for psychosocial asthma management [dissertation]. [Charlottesville (VA)]: University of Virginia; 2003. 109 p. Web site for the program available at: http://okay-with-asthma.org/.