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Citing biomedical documents - National Library of Medicine (NLM) style

Citing entire reports
National Library of Medicine (NLM) style

Patrias K. Citing medicine: the NLM style guide for authors, editors, and publishers [Internet]. 2nd ed. Wendling DL, technical editor. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2007 [updated 2009 Oct 21; cited 2010 Apr 30]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/citingmedicine

Components/elements listed in the order they should appear in a reference: (R) = required, (O) = optional

Author/Editor (R) | Author Affiliation (O) | Title (R) | Type of Medium (R) | Edition (R) | Editor and Other Secondary Authors (O) | Place of Publication (R) | Publisher (R) | Date of Publication (R) | Pagination (O) | Physical Description (O) | Series (O) | Report Number (R) | Contract Number or Grant Number (O) | Language (R) | Notes (O)

  • Standard report written and published by the sponsoring organization
    • Page E, Harney JM. Health hazard evaluation report. Cincinnati (OH): National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (US); 2001 Feb. Report No.: HETA2000-0139-2824. 24 p.
  • Standard report written by the performing organization and published by the sponsoring organization
    • Sontag ED (Department of Mathematics, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ). Control of nonlinear systems. Final report 15 Mar 2004-31 Jan 2005. Washington: Army Medical Department (US): 2004. 5 p. Report No.: AFRLSRARTR050271. Contract No.: FA95500410172.
  • Standard report written and published by the performing organization
    • Popper SW, Wagner CS, Larson EV. New forces at work: industry views critical technologies. Santa Monica (CA): Rand; 1998. 155 p. Report No.: MR-1008-OSTP. Contract No.: OPA-9215205. Supported by the Office of Science and Technology Policy.
  • Report with optional full given names
    • Persing, David H. Biomarker development for TLR4 agonists. Annual report. Seattle (WA): CORIXA Corporation; 2004 Oct. 76 p. Contract No.: DAMD17-03-C-0089. Funded by the US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, Ft. Detrick, MD.
  • Report with optional limit to the first three authors (use "et al" or "and others")
    • Cohen JT, Duggar K, Gray GM, et al. Evaluation of the potential for bovine spongiform encephalopathy in the United States. Boston: Harvard School of Public Health, Center for Risk Analysis; 2001 Nov. 116 p. Report No.: PB2002-108684. Supported by the US Department of Agriculture.
  • Report with a designation of family rank in the author name
    • Gostin LO, Hodge JG Jr (Georgetown University Law Center, Center for Law and the Public's Health, Washington, DC). State public health law assessment report. Seattle (WA): Washington University, Turning Point National Program Office; 2002 Apr. 51 p. Sponsored by the Turning Point Public Health Statute Modernization National Excellence Collaborative; publication supported by a grant from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.
  • Report with author and translator
    • Framarin A. First-trimester prenatal screening for Down syndrome and other aneuploidies. Wickens M, translator. Montreal (QC): Agence d'Evaluation des Technologies et des Modes d'Intervention en Sante (CA); c2003. 81 p. Report No.: AETMIS 03-01.
  • Report with authors and an editor
    • Rosenbaum, S, Smith BM, Shin P, Zakheim MH, Shaw K, Sonosky CA, Repasch L. Negotiating the new health system: a nationwide study of Medicaid managed care contracts. 2nd ed. Johnson K, editor. Washington: George Washington University Medical Center, Center for Health Policy Research; c1998. 2 vols.
  • Report with editors instead of authors
    • Reid PP, Compton WD, Grossman JH, Fanjiang G, editors. Building a better delivery system: a new engineering/health care partnership. Washington: National Academies Press; 2005. 262 p. Grant No.: 044640. Contract No.: N01-OD-42139. Supported by the National Science Foundation, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, and the National Institutes of Health.
  • Report with editors and translators
    • Pinkau K, Ronn O, editors. Environmental standards: scientific foundations and rational procedures of regulation with emphasis on radiological risk management. Jager G, Kais-Heinrich S, translators. Berlin (Germany): Berlin Academy of Sciences and Technology; 1998. 393 p.
    • Chun MN, editor and translator. Must we wait in despair: the 1867 report of the Ahahui Laau Lapaau of Wailuku, Maui on native Hawaiian health. Honolulu: First People's Productions; 1994. 318 p.
  • Report with an organization as the author or editor
    • Task Force on Accreditation of Health Professions Education. Strategies for change and improvement: the report of the Task Force on Accreditation of Health Professions Education. San Francisco: University of California, San Francisco, Center for the Health Professions; 1999 Jun. 86 p.
    • Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals of Environmental Relevance, editor. Naphthalin. Hicks R, translator. Weinheim (Germany): VCH; c1992. 155 p.
  • Report with government agency as the author
    • National High Blood Pressure Education Program (US). The fourth report on the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure in children and adolescents. Rev. ed. Bethesda (MD): National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (US); 2005. 48 p. (NIH publication; no. 05-5267).
  • Report with authors from both the performing and sponsoring organizations
    • Thompson LA, Chhikara RS (School of Natural and Applied Sciences, University of Houston, Clear Lake, TX); Conklin J (Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX). Cox proportional hazards models for modeling the time to onset of decompression sickness in hypobaric environments. Houston (TX): National Aeronautics and Space Administration (US), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center; 2003 Mar. 39 p. Report No.: NASA/TP-2003-210791. Grant No.: NASA 9-1083. Basic funding support provided by the Institute for Space Systems Operations of the University of Houston.
  • Report with no author provided
    • The world health report 2003: shaping the future. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2003. 193 p.
  • Report in a language other than English
    • Eidgenossische Volkszahlung 1990: die Wohnbevolkerung der Gemeinden. Bern (Switzerland): Bundesamt fur Statistik; 1993. 154 p. German, French, Italian.
  • Report in a language other than English with translation
    • Eidgenossische Volkszahlung 1990: die Wohnbevolkerung der Gemeinden [Federal population census 1990: the population of communities]. Bern (Switzerland): Bundesamt fur Statistik; 1993. 154 p. German, French, Italian.
  • Report in two or more equal languages
    • Biotechnology and the health of Canadians: a report from the Canadian Biotechnology Advisory Committee on biotechnology and health innovations; opportunities, challenges, and public policy = Biotechnologie et la sante des Canadiens: rapport du Comite Consultatif Canadien de la Biotechnologie sur la biotechnologie et l'innovation dans le domaine de la sante; aspects prometteurs, de fis et politique publique. Ottawa (ON): Canadian Biotechnology Advisory Committee; 2004 Dec. 181 p. English, French.
  • Report in two or more equal languages with translation included
    • Mesle F, Shkol'nikov V, Hertrich V, Vallin J. Tendances recentes de la mortalite par cause en Russie 1965-1994 = Sovremennye tendentsii smertnosti po prichinam smerti v Rossii 1965-1994 [Recent trends in mortality by cause in Russia, 1965-1994]. Paris: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques;1996. 140 p. French, Russian.
  • Report with a title containing a special character: Greek letters may be written out if special fonts are not available
    • Dutch Expert Committee on Occupational Standards. Lindane (γ-hexachlorocyclohexane): health-based recommended occupational exposure limit. The Hague (Netherlands): Health Council of the Netherlands; 2001 Dec 6. 124 p.
    • or
    • Dutch Expert Committee on Occupational Standards. Lindane (gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane): health-based recommended occupational exposure limit. The Hague (Netherlands): Health Council of the Netherlands; 2001 Dec 6. 124 p.
  • Report with a title containing a special character: superscripts/subscripts may be enclosed within parentheses if fonts not available
    • Doebler JA. Autoradiographic localization of [125I]-ricin in lungs and trachea of mice following an aerosol inhalation exposure. Aberdeen Proving Ground (MD): Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense (US); 1996. 8 p. Report No.: USAMRICD-TR; 96-03.
    • or
    • Doebler JA. Autoradiographic localization of [(125)I]-ricin in lungs and trachea of mice following an aerosol inhalation exposure. Aberdeen Proving Ground (MD): Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense (US); 1996. 8 p. Report No.: USAMRICD-TR; 96-03.
  • Report in a microform
    • Chaturvedi AK, Smith DR, Canfield DV. Blood carbon monoxide and hydrogen cyanide concentration in the fatalities of fire and non-fire associated civil aviation accidents, 1991-1998 [microfiche]. Final report. Washington: Federal Aviation Administration (US), Office of Aviation Medicine; 2000. 1 microfiche: black & white, negative, 4 x 6 in.
  • Report with an edition
    • Persing DH. Biomarker development for TLR4 agonists. Annual report. Seattle (WA): CORIXA Corporation; 2004 Oct. 76 p. Contract No.: DAMD17-03-C-0089. Funded by the US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, Ft. Detrick, MD.
    • Thomas C, Butler J, Davies M, Johnson R, editors. State injury indicators report: 1999 data. 2nd ed. Atlanta (GA): Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US), National Center for Injury Prevention and Control; 2004 Feb. 108 p.
    • National High Blood Pressure Education Program (US). The fourth report on the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure in children and adolescents. Rev. ed. Bethesda (MD): National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (US); 2005. 48 p. (NIH publication; no. 05-5267).
  • Report place of publication with geographic qualifier added for clarity
    • Barker B, Degenhardt L. Accidental drug-induced deaths in Australia 1997-2001. Sydney (Australia): University of New South Wales, National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre; 2003. 46 p.
  • Report with place of publication inferred
    • Griffith University, Faculty of Nursing and Health (Queensland, Australia). Advanced nursing practice for rural and remote Australia: final report to the National Rural Health Alliance Inc. [Deakin West (Australia)]: National Rural Health Alliance (AU); 1998 Feb. 74 p.
  • Report with publisher with subsidiary division
    • Wainer J. New voices in rural medical practice: analysis of qualitative data from the National Rural General Practice Study. Traralgon (Australia): Monash University, School of Rural Health; 2002. 57 p. Grant No.: 751. Sponsored by the General Practice Evaluation Program, Department of Health and Ageing, Australia.
  • Report with governmental or national agency as publisher
    • van deWater HP, Boshuizen HC, Perenboom RJ. Health expectancy of the Dutch population. Bilthoven (Netherlands): National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection (NL); 1995. 21 p. Report No.: 431501009.
  • Report with joint publication
    • Monahan C, Szpur MV, Evans M, Craik D, Kubale MG, Maloney MM. Focus on Children community planning manual: needs assessment and health planning for children, including children with special health care needs. Rev. ed. Chicago: University of Illinois at Chicago, Division of Specialized Care for Children; 1996 Oct. 136 p. Grant No.: DHHS/PHS/HRSA MCJ-175005. Joint publication of the Division of Family Health, Illinois Department of Public Health, Springfield.
  • Report with year and month of publication
    • Gardner GG, Allan JH, Dempsey MF (Department of Clinical Physics, West Glasgow Hospitals, Glasgow, Scotland). ADAC Forte with 3/8" and 5/8" crystal comparison: gamma camera performance assessment. London: Great Britain, Medical Devices Agency; 2001 Dec. 33 p. Report No.: MDA 01150.
  • Report with no date of publication, but a date of copyright
    • Framarin A. First-trimester prenatal screening for Down syndrome and other aneuploidies. Wickens M, translator. Montreal (QC): Agence d'Evaluation des Technologies et des Modes d'Intervention en Sante (CA); c2003. 81 p. Report No.: AETMIS 03-01.
  • Report with volumes instead of page numbers
    • World drug report 2004. Vienna (Austria): United Nations, Office on Drugs and Crime; 2004. 2 vol.
  • No page numbers appear on the report
    • Keiding N, Fine JP, Carstensen L, Slama R. Accelerated failure time regression for backward recurrence times and current durations. Copenhagen (Denmark): University of Copenhagen, Department of Biostatistics; 2005. 13 leaves. Report No.: 05/4.
  • Report in a series
    • Mann C, Cox L, Ross DC. Making the link: strategies for coordinating publicly funded health care coverage for children. Isaacson SK, Rutherford M, editors. Rockville (MD): Department of Health and Human Services (US), Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, User Liaison Program; 2000. 35 p. (AHRQ publication; no. 00-0014).
  • Report with report, contract, and grant numbers
    • Moscovice IS. Rural health networks: evolving organizational forms & functions. Minneapolis (MN): University of Minnesota, School of Public Health, Rural Health Research Center; 2003. 47 p. Grant No.: 032659. Supported by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.
    • Farley D, Morton SC, Damberg CL, Fremont A, Berry SH, Greenberg M, Sorbero M, Teleki SS, Ricci K, Pollock N. Assessment of the national patient safety initiative: context and baseline evaluation report 1. Santa Monica (CA): RAND Corporation; 2005. 112 p. Report No.: TR-203-AHRQ. Contract No.: 290-02-0010. Sponsored by the US Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.
    • Thompson LA, Chhikara RS (School of Natural and Applied Sciences, University of Houston, Clear Lake, TX); Conklin J (Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX). Cox proportional hazards models for modeling the time to onset of decompression sickness in hypobaric environments. Houston (TX): National Aeronautics and Space Administration (US), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center; 2003 Mar. 39 p. Report No.: NASA/TP-2003-210791. Grant No.: NASA 9-1083.
  • Report with numbers and a series
    • MacLean CH, Issa AM, Mojica WA, Newberry SJ, Morton SC (Southern California Evidence-Based Practice Center/RAND, Santa Monica, CA). Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on cognitive function with aging, dementia, and neurological diseases. Rockville (MD): Department of Health and Human Services (US), Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2005 Feb. 148 p. (Evidence report/technology assessment; no. 114). Report No.: AHRQPUB05E0112. Contract No.: DHHS290020003. Available from: NTIS, Springfield, VA; PB2005104600.
  • Reports available from NTIS or GPO
    • Ewing RE, Flournoy L, Wall J, Wild J, Crooks R (Texas Engineering Experiment Station, College Station, TX). Disaster Relief and Emergency Medical Services (DREAMS): Texas A&M digital EMS and the detection and remediation of chemical threat agents. Annual report 1 Oct 2003-30 Sep 2004. Washington: Department of the Army (US), Medical Division; 2004 Oct. 36 p. Contract No.: DAMD170020010. Available from: NTIS, Springfield, VA; ADA435629.
    • Boren JJ, Onken LS, Carroll KM, editors. Approaches to drug abuse counseling. Bethesda (MD): National Institute on Drug Abuse (US), Behavioral Treatment Development Branch; 2000 Jul. 129 p. (NIH publication; no. 00-4151). Available from: US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC; HE 20.3952:D 84/5.
  • Report with sponsorship note
    • Gostin LO, Hodge JG Jr (Georgetown University Law Center, Center for Law and the Public's Health, Washington, DC). State public health law assessment report. [Seattle (WA)]: Washington University, Turning Point National Program Office; 2002 Apr. 51 p. Sponsored by the Turning Point Public Health Statute Modernization National Excellence Collaborative; publication supported by a grant from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.
  • Report accompanied by another medium
    • Human energy requirements: report of a Joint FAO/WHO/UNU Expert Consultation on Human Energy Requirements. Rome (Italy): Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations; 2004. 96 p. (FAO food and nutrition series; 18133932). Accompanied by: 1 CD-ROM.
    • Mesle F, Shkol'nikov V, Hertrich V, Vallin J. Tendances recentes de la mortalite par cause en Russie 1965-1994 = Sovremennye tendentsii smertnosti po prichinam smerti v Rossii 1965-1994 [Recent trends in mortality by cause in Russia, 1965-1994]. Paris: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques;1996. 140 p. French, Russian. Accompanied by: 2 floppy disks.
  • Report with other types of notes
    • Rosenbaum S, Kamoie B, Collins C, Zuvekas A. Analysis of CareFirst's performance as a charitable not-for-profit health insurance company in the National Capital Area: report to the DC Appleseed Center for Law and Justice. Washington: George Washington University Medical Center, School of Public Health and Health Services, Center for Health Services and Policy; 2003 Oct. 62 p. This analysis focuses particularly on the District of Columbia and Northern Virginia.