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Citing biomedical documents - National Library of Medicine (NLM) style

Citing homepages
National Library of Medicine (NLM) style

Patrias K. Citing medicine: the NLM style guide for authors, editors, and publishers [Internet]. 2nd ed. Wendling DL, technical editor. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2007 [updated 2009 Oct 21; cited 2010 Apr 30]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/citingmedicine

Components/elements listed in the order they should appear in a reference: (R) = required, (O) = optional

Author (R) | Author Affiliation (O) | Title (R) | Content Type (O) | Type of Medium (R) | Edition (R) | Editor and other Secondary Authors (O) | Place of Publication (R) | Publisher (R) | Date of Publication (R) | Date of Update/Revision (R) | Date of Citation (R) | Availability (R) | Language (R) | Notes (O)

  • Standard citation to a homepage
    • Complementary/Integrative Medicine [Internet]. Houston: University of Texas, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center; c2007 [cited 2007 Feb 21]. Available from: http://www.mdanderson.org/departments/CIMER/.
    • AMA: helping doctors help patients [Internet]. Chicago: American Medical Association; c1995-2007 [cited 2007 Feb 22]. Available from: http://www.ama-assn.org/.
  • Standard citation to a homepage with optional content type
    • AMA: helping doctors help patients [homepage on the Internet]. Chicago: American Medical Association; c1995-2007 [cited 2007 Feb 22]. Available from: http://www.ama-assn.org/.
  • Homepage with author(s)
    • Hooper JF. Psychiatry & the Law: Forensic Psychiatric Resource Page [Internet]. Tuscaloosa (AL): University of Alabama, Department of Psychiatry and Neurology; 1999 Jan 1 [updated 2006 Jul 8; cited 2007 Feb 23]. Available from: http://bama.ua.edu/~jhooper/.
    • D'Alessandro DM, D'Alessandro MP. Virtual Pediatric Hospital™: a digital library of pediatric information [Internet]. [Iowa City (IA)]: Donna M. D'Alessandro; c1992-2007 [revised 2006 Jul 20; cited 2007 Feb 20]. Available from: http://www.virtualpediatrichospital.org/.
  • Homepage with full author name(s)
    • D'Alessandro, Donna M.; D'Alessandro, Michael P. Virtual Pediatric Hospital™: a digital library of pediatric information [Internet]. [Iowa City (IA)]: Donna M. D'Alessandro; c1992-2007 [revised 2006 Jul 20; cited 2007 Feb 20]. Available from: http://www.virtualpediatrichospital.org/.
  • Homepage with author role indicated
    • Clutterbuck J, compiler. The Aspergillus nidulans Linkage Map [Internet]. Glasgow (Scotland): University of Glasgow, Institute of Biomedical and Life Sciences, Division of Molecular Genetics; [updated 2006 Nov; cited 2007 Feb 21]. Available from: http://www.pharmedout.org/.
  • Homepage with an organization(s) as author
    • Gene Ontology Consortium. the Gene Ontology [Internet]. [place unknown]: the Gene Ontology; c1999-2007 [cited 2007 Feb 22]. Available from: http://www.geneontology.org/.
  • Homepage with no authors or editors
    • StatePublicHealth.org [Internet]. Washington: ASTHO; [cited 2007 Feb 23]. Available from: http://statepublichealth.org/.
  • Homepage with author affiliation
    • Uijtdehaage S (David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA. bas@mednet.ucla.edu), Dennis S (Spencer S. Eccles Health Sciences Library, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT. sdennis@lib.med.utah.edu). HEAL: Health Education Assets Library [Internet]. Oakland (CA): Regents of the University of California; c2000-2005 [cited 2007 Feb 20]. Available from: http://www.healcentral.org/.
  • Homepage with title having a subtitle
    • NursingWorld: Official Web site of the American Nurses Association [Internet]. Silver Spring (MD): American Nurses Association, Inc.; c2007 [updated 2007 Feb 20; cited 2007 Feb 20]. Available from: http://www.ana.org/.
  • Homepage with upper/lower case/special characters in the title
    • familydoctor.org [Internet]. Leawood (KS): American Academy of Family Physicians; c2007 [cited 2007 Feb 20]. Available from: http://familydoctor.org/.
    • BIRDNET [Internet]. Washington: Ornithological Council; c1999-2006 [updated 2006 Dec 8; cited 2007 Feb 20]. Available from: http://www.nmnh.si.edu/BIRDNET/.
    • National Library for Health [Internet]. [London]: NHS; c2005 [cited 2007 Jun 11]. Available from: http://www.library.nhs.uk/.
    • E@UP: European Copyright Focal Point [Internet]. The Hague (Netherlands): EBLIDA Secretariat; c2000 [cited 2007 Feb 20]. Available from: http://www.eblida.org/ecup/.
    • OncoLink™: the Web's first cancer resource [Internet]. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, Abramson Cancer Center; c1994-2007 [cited 2007 Feb 20]. Available from: http://www.oncolink.com/.
    • MedConnect: an online resource for medical professionals [Internet]. Monmouth Junction (NJ): Medical Network Inc.; c1995-2006 [cited 2007 Mar 23]. Available from: http://www.medconnect.com/.
    • Chlamy Center: an Online Informatics Resource for Chlamydomonas [Internet]. Durham (NC): Duke University, Department of Biology; [modified 2007 Mar 8; cited 2007 Mar 22]. Available from: http://jupiter.biology.duke.edu/.
  • Homepage with title ending in punctuation other than a period
    • Shape Up America! [Internet]. Clyde Park (MT): Shape Up America!; c2005-2006 [cited 2007 Feb 23]. Available from: http://www.shapeup.org/.
  • Homepage in a language other than English
    • Senovida [Internet]. [place unknown]: Sociedad Ecuatoriana de Oncologia; [cited 2007 Feb 22]. Available from: http://www.senovida.org/. Spanish.
  • Homepage in a language other than English with translation included
    • Senovida [Breast life] [Internet]. [place unknown]: Sociedad Ecuatoriana de Oncologia; [cited 2007 Feb 22]. Available from: http://www.senovida.org/. Spanish.
  • Homepage published with parallel text in two or more languages
    • Health Canada = Sante Canada [Internet]. Ottawa (ON): Health Canada; [updated 2007 Feb 8; cited 2007 Feb 20]. Available from: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/. English, French.
  • Homepage published with optional content type
    • National Jewish Medical and Research Center [homepage on the Internet]. Denver: The Center; c2007 [cited 2007 Feb 22]. Available from: http://www.njc.org/.
  • Homepage with an edition or version
    • Doctor's Guide [Internet]. Global ed. [place unknown]: Doctor's Guide Publishing Limited; c1995-2007 [updated 2007 Feb 21; cited 2007 Feb 21]. Available from: http://www.cancerguide.org/.
  • Homepage with editor(s)
    • Alternative Nature Online Herbal [Internet]. Bergeron K, editor. Erin (TN): Alternative Nature; 1997 [cited 2007 Mar 23]. Available from: http://altnature.com/.
    • PedsCCM.org: The Pediatric Critical Care Website [Internet]. Markovitz B, Weigle C, Pon S, editors. [place unknown]: PedsCCM; 1995 [updated 2007 Mar 9; cited 2007 Mar 22]. Available from: http://pedsccm.org/.
  • Homepage with well known place of publication
    • OncoLink™: the Web's first cancer resource [Internet]. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, Abramson Cancer Center; c1994-2007 [cited 2007 Feb 20]. Available from: http://www.oncolink.com/.
  • Homepage with geographic qualifier added to place of publication for clarity
    • HDCN: Hypertension, Dialysis & Clinical Nephrology [Internet]. Hinsdale (IL): Medtext, Inc.; c1995-2006 [cited 2007 Feb 20]. Available from: http://www.medtext.com/hdcn.htm
    • Max-Planck-Institut fur Experimentelle Medizin [Internet]. Gottingen (Germany): Max-Planck-Gesellschaft; c2006 [cited 2007 Mar 23]. Available from: http://www.em.mpg.de/site/. German.
  • Homepage with place of publication inferred
    • National Library for Health [Internet]. [London]: NHS; c2005 [cited 2007 Jun 11]. Available from: http://www.library.nhs.uk/.
    • D'Alessandro DM, D'Alessandro MP. Virtual Pediatric Hospital™: a digital library of pediatric information [Internet]. [Iowa City (IA)]: Donna M. D'Alessandro; c1992-2007 [revised 2006 Jul 20; cited 2007 Feb 20]. Available from: http://www.virtualpediatrichospital.org/.
  • Homepage with unknown place of publication
    • Dunn S. The CancerGuide Page [Internet]. [place unknown]: Steve Dunn; c1995-2004 [updated 2004 Aug 9; cited 2007 Feb 20]. Available from: http://www.cancerguide.org/.
  • Homepage with publisher having subsidiary division
    • OncoLink™: the Web's first cancer resource [Internet]. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, Abramson Cancer Center; c1994-2007 [cited 2007 Feb 20]. Available from: http://www.oncolink.com/.
  • Homepage with government agency or other national body as publisher
    • National Center for Infectious Diseases [Internet]. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US); [reviewed 2007 Feb 15; cited 2007 Feb 20]. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/index.htm
  • Homepage with title and publisher the same
    • PhysOrg.com [Internet]. [place unknown]: PhysOrg.com; c2003 [cited 2007 Feb 22]. Available from: http://www.physorg.com
    • cancerbackup: informing, understanding, supporting [Internet]. London: Cancerbackup; c2003 [cited 2007 Feb 22]. Available from: http://www.cancerbackup.org.uk/.
  • Homepage with title and publisher the same, with publisher name abbreviated
    • United States National Library of Medicine [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): The Library; 1993 Oct 10 [updated 2007 Feb 20; cited 2007 Feb 21]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/.
    • Johns Hopkins University [Internet]. Baltimore (MD): The University; [cited 2007 Feb 20]. Available from: http://www.jhu.edu/.
    • International HIV/AIDS Alliance [Internet]. Brighton (UK): The Alliance; [cited 2007 Feb 20]. Available from: http://www.aidsalliance.org/.
    • The Kennedy Institute of Ethics [Internet]. Washington: The Institute; [updated 2007 Mar 16; cited 2007 Mar 22]. Available from: http://kennedyinstitute.georgetown.edu/.
  • Homepage with author and publisher the same
    • Double D. Critical Psychiatry Website [Internet]. Norwich (UK): Duncan Double; [cited 2007 Feb 23]. Available from: http://www.critpsynet.freeuk.com/antipsychiatry.htm
  • Homepage with joint publication
    • Uijtdehaage S, Dennis S. HEAL: Health Education Assets Library [Internet]. Oakland (CA): Regents of the University of California; c2000-2005 [cited 2007 Feb 20]. Available from: http://www.healcentral.org/. Joint publication with the University of Utah and the University of Oklahoma.
    • Hooper JF. Psychiatry & the Law: Forensic Psychiatric Resource Page [Internet]. Tuscaloosa (AL): University of Alabama, Department of Psychiatry and Neurology; 1999 Jan 1 [updated 2006 Jul 8; cited 2007 Feb 23]. Available from: http://bama.ua.edu/~jhooper/. Jointly published by the University of Alabama School of Law and the Alabama Department of Mental Health & Mental Retardation.
  • Homepage with unknown publisher
    • Huckstep RL, Sherry E. World Ortho [Internet]. [place unknown: publisher unknown]; [updated 2007 Mar 23; cited 2007 Mar 23]. Available from: http://www.worldortho.com/.
  • Homepage with month(s)/day(s) included in date of publication
    • Hooper JF. Psychiatry & the Law: Forensic Psychiatric Resource Page [Internet]. Tuscaloosa (AL): University of Alabama, Department of Psychiatry and Neurology; 1999 Jan 1 [updated 2006 Jul 8; cited 2007 Feb 23]. Available from: http://bama.ua.edu/~jhooper/.
  • Homepage with date of copyright instead of date of publication
    • E@UP: European Copyright Focal Point [Internet]. The Hague (Netherlands): EBLIDA Secretariat; c2000 [cited 2007 Feb 20]. Available from: http://www.eblida.org/ecup/.
  • Homepage with multiple years of publication
    • APSnet: Plant Pathology Online [Internet]. St Paul (MN): American Phytopathological Association; c1994-2006 [cited 2006 Dec 4]. Available from: http://www.apsnet.org/.
  • Homepage with update/revision date
    • United States National Library of Medicine [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): The Library; 1993 Oct 10 [updated 2007 Mar 22; cited 2007 Mar 23]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/.
    • D'Alessandro DM, D'Alessandro MP. Virtual Pediatric Hospital™: a digital library of pediatric information [Internet]. [Iowa City (IA)]: Donna M. D'Alessandro; c1992-2007 [revised 2006 Jul 20; cited 2007 Feb 20]. Available from: http://www.virtualpediatrichospital.org/.
    • Food and Nutrition Information Center [Internet]. Beltsville (MD): National Agricultural Library (US); [modified 2007 Jan 30; cited 2007 Feb 20]. Available from: http://grande.nal.usda.gov/nal_display/index.php?tax_level=1&info_center=4
  • Homepage with a date of update and a date of revision
    • National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): The Institute; [updated 2007 Mar 23; modified 2007 Mar 26; cited 2007 Mar 27]. Available from: http://www3.niaid.nih.gov/.
  • Homepage with no date of publication or copyright
    • EPERC: End of Life / Palliative Education Resource Center [Internet]. Milwaukee (WI): Medical College of Wisconsin; [updated 2007 Feb; cited 2007 Feb 21]. Available from: http://www.eperc.mcw.edu/.
    • growthhouse.org: improving care for the dying [Internet]. San Francisco: Growth House, Inc.; [cited 2007 Feb 20]. Available from: http://www.growthhouse.org/.
  • Homepage with multiple URLs
    • Neonatology on the Web [Internet]. [place unknown]: Neonatology on the Web; 1995 Aug 1 [updated 2006 Dec 22; cited 2007 Mar 23]. Available from: http://www.neonatology.org/ ; www.neonatology.net ; www.neonatology.com
  • Homepage with optional system requirements
    • Care2Learn.com: continuing education for healthcare [Internet]. Bradenton (FL): HealthNow, Inc.; [updated 2007 Feb 22; cited 2007 Feb 23]. Available from: http://care2learn.com/. System Requirements: Netscape Navigator 3.x or higher or Microsoft Internet Explorer 3.02 or higher.
    • PHA: Pulmonary Hypertension Association [Internet]. Silver Spring (MD): The Association; c2007 [cited 2007 Feb 22]. Available from: http://www.phassociation.org/. System Requirements: PC Windows running Internet Explorer 5.5 or higher or Macintosh Internet Explorer 5.2 or higher; Macromedia Flash Player; Adobe Acrobat Reader 4.0 or higher.
  • Homepage with Web master named
    • Neonatology on the Web [Internet]. [place unknown]: Neonatology on the Web; 1995 Aug 1 [updated 2006 Dec 22; cited 2007 Mar 23]. Available from: http://www.neonatology.org/. Ray Duncan, Web master.
  • Homepage with supplemental note included
    • Uijtdehaage S, Dennis S. HEAL: Health Education Assets Library [Internet]. Oakland (CA): Regents of the University of California; c2000-2005 [cited 2007 Feb 20]. Available from: http://www.healcentral.org/. This project made possible by grants from the National Science Foundation, DUE-0085660 and DUE-0226314, and from the National Library of Medicine, 1 G08 LM007877-01 and 1 G08 LM008054-01.
    • Complementary/Integrative Medicine [Internet]. Houston: University of Texas, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center; c2007 [cited 2007 Feb 21]. Available from: http://www.mdanderson.org/departments/CIMER/. Some content available in Spanish and Chinese.
    • StatePublicHealth.org [Internet]. Washington: ASTHO; [cited 2007 Feb 23]. Available from: http://statepublichealth.org/. Sponsored by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, National Governors Association, and the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials.