☰ Menu

Citing biomedical documents - National Library of Medicine (NLM) style

Citing individual prints and photographs
National Library of Medicine (NLM) style

Patrias K. Citing medicine: the NLM style guide for authors, editors, and publishers [Internet]. 2nd ed. Wendling DL, technical editor. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2007 [updated 2009 Oct 21; cited 2010 Apr 30]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/citingmedicine

Components/elements listed in the order they should appear in a reference: (R) = required, (O) = optional

Author (artist or photographer) (R) | Author Affiliation (O) | Title (R) | Type of Medium (R) | Edition (O) | Place of Publication (R) | Publisher (R) | Date of Publication (R) | Physical Description (O) | Series (O) | Language (R) | Notes (O)

  • Standard citation for a print or photograph
    • Day J. Dying before their time: early death & AIDS [poster]. Farmington (CT): University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Section of Medical Arts & Letters; 1988. 1 poster: color, 14 x 21 in.
  • Print or photograph author with optional full first name
    • Netter, Frank H. [Interior view of the ear] [poster]. Summit (NJ): Ciba; [date unknown]. 1 poster: color, 39 x 27 in.
  • Print or photograph author with optional role provided
    • Nunney, artist. Learning to be doctors in Fiji [poster]. New York: British Information Services; [date unknown]. 1 poster: color, 51 x 76 cm.
    • Vedin A, Maliutina O, artists. Prichina-alkogol' [poster]. Moscow: Izdatel'stvo Plakat; c1990. 1 poster: color, 66 x 48 cm. Russian.
    • Ridley W, engraver. Harvey [print]. London: [publisher unknown]; 1796 May 7. 1 print: black & white, 3 x 5 in.
    • Baron DA, photographer. Would you be more careful if it was you that got pregnant? [poster]. California: Pharmacists Planning Service, Inc.; c1986. 1 poster: halftone, 11 x 17 in.
  • Print or photograph author with only last name provided
    • Walter, engraver. John F. Frazer, A.M. [print]. Philadelphia: Harrison; [date unknown]. 1 print: black & white, 7 x 10 in.
  • Print or photograph with multiple authors
    • Vedin A, Maliutina O. Prichina-alkogol' [poster]. Moscow: Izdatel'stvo Plakat; c1990. 1 poster: color, 66 x 48 cm. Russian.
  • Print or photograph authors with different roles
    • Sokolov IS, author; Ivanov KK, artist. Stydno, diadia! [For shame, uncle!] [poster]. Moscow: Ministerstvo Zdravookhraneniia SSSR, Institut Sanitarnogo Prosveshcheniia; 1964. 1 poster: color, 56 x 43 cm. Russian.
  • Print or photograph with organization as author
    • College des Ondes. Le sida se transmet aussi de cette facon [AIDS is transmitted by this behavior] [poster]. [Mauritius]: Mauritius Ministere de la Sante, Health Education Unit; [date unknown]. 1 poster: color, 12 x 19 in. French.
  • Print or photograph with no author found
    • Observation of bacterial growths in medium to study their effects on teeth [photograph]. [Bethesda (MD)]: National Institute of Dental Research (US); [date unknown]. 1 photograph: black & white, 8 x 10 in.
  • Print or photograph with author affiliation
    • Joseph N (Smart + Strong, New York, NY). Let's talk [poster]. [Washington]: Pan American Health Organization; 1999. 1 poster: color, 18 x 24 in.
  • Print or photograph title with subtitle
    • Help wanted: set your own hours [poster]. Bethesda (MD): National Cancer Institute (US); [date unknown]. 1 poster: color, 17 x 22 in.
  • Print or photograph title ending in punctuation other than a period
    • AIDS is over, right? [poster]. New York: Visual AIDS; 1998. 1 poster: color, 24 x 35 in.
    • Gillray J. The cow pock-or-the wonderful effects of the new inoculation! [print]. London: H. Humphrey; 1802 Jun 12. 1 print: color, 9 x 14 in.
    • Sokolov IS, author; Ivanov KK, artist. Stydno, diadia! [For shame, uncle!] [poster]. Moscow: Ministerstvo Zdravookhraneniia SSSR, Institut Sanitarnogo Prosveshcheniia; 1964. 1 poster: color, 56 x 43 cm. Russian.
  • Print or photograph with constructed title
    • Kennedy RA. [Christian B. Anfinsen] [photograph]. [Bethesda (MD)]: National Institutes of Health (US), Photographic Research Section; [1952?]. 1 print: black & white, 10 x 8 in.
    • [Portrait of five African American female nurses in uniform, circa 1920] [photograph]. [New York]: National League for Nursing Press; c1991. 1 photograph: black & white, 8 x 10 in.
  • Print or photograph title in a language other than English
    • Le soleil peut etre dangereux: travail ou loisirs, protegez-vous [poster]. Paris: Ligue Nationale Contre le Cancer; 1992. 1 poster: color, 12 x 16 in. French.
  • Print or photograph title in a language other than English with translation
    • Le soleil peut etre dangereux: travail ou loisirs, protegez-vous [The sun can be dangerous: at work or play, protect yourself] [poster]. Paris: Ligue Nationale Contre le Cancer; 1992. 1 poster: color, 12 x 16 in. French.
  • Print or photograph title with parallel text in two or more languages
    • Boillard J, artist. Assemblee des vieux garcons = The assembly of old batchelors [print]. London: Bowles & Carver; [date unknown]. 1 print: color, 16 x 22 cm. French, English.
  • Print or photograph title for a conference
    • Geriatric assessment methods for clinical decisionmaking [poster]. Consensus Development Conference on Geriatric Assessment Methods; 1987 Oct 19-21; Bethesda, MD. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US), Medical Arts and Photography Branch; 1987. 1 poster: color, 27 x 32 in.
    • Congreso Nacional y Primera Conferencia Internacional de Salud Oral [National Congress and 1st International Conference on Oral Health] [poster]. Lima (Peru): Colegio Odontologico del Peru; 1971. 1 poster: color, 21 x 27 in. Spanish.
  • Print or photograph with edition
    • The world's debt to Pasteur [poster]. Edition: 1000. Philadelphia: Wistar Institute; c1984. 1 poster: color, 9 x 13 in.
  • Print or photograph with well known place of publication
    • The heifer from which the vaccine matter is taken [print]. New York: Harper & Brothers; 1870. 1 print: black & white, 10 x 8 in.
  • Print or photograph with lesser known place of publication
    • Stoepman F. From witchdoctor to MD: a review of more than 20 centuries of medical skill--of the scholars, the diseases and the sick--of the world around them [poster]. Haarlem (Netherlands): The Halls; 1972. 1 poster: color, 21 x 31 in.
  • Print or photograph with place of publication inferred
    • [Portrait of five African American female nurses in uniform, circa 1920] [photograph]. [New York]: National League for Nursing Press; c1991. 1 photograph: black & white, 8 x 10 in.
  • Print or photograph with no place of publication found
    • Blossom D. Tufts University School of Medicine [photograph]. [place unknown]: E.R. Squibb & Sons; c1966. 1 photograph: color, 11 x 14 in.
  • Print or photograph publisher with subsidiary department/division named
    • Day J. Dying before their time: early death & AIDS [poster]. Farmington (CT): University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Section of Medical Arts & Letters; 1988. 1 poster: color, 14 x 21 in.
  • Print or photograph with government agency as publisher
    • Observation of bacterial growths in medium to study their effects on teeth [photograph]. [Bethesda (MD)]: National Institute of Dental Research (US); [date unknown]. 1 photograph: black & white, 8 x 10 in.
  • Print or photograph with no publisher found
    • Spellman DD. [Hugo A. Freund] [photograph]. Detroit: [publisher unknown]; 1948 Feb. 1 photograph: black & white, 8 x 11 in.
  • Print or photograph with no place of publication or publisher found
    • Kyllingstad H. Indian hospital [photograph]. [place unknown: publisher unknown]; 1951. 1 photograph: black & white, 7 x 9 in.
  • Print or photograph date with month and day included
    • Ridley W, engraver. Harvey [print]. London: [publisher unknown]; 1796 May 7. 1 print: black & white, 3 x 5 in.
  • Print or photograph with date of copyright instead of date of publication
    • Vedin A, Maliutina O. Prichina-alkogol [poster]. Moscow: Izdatel'stvo Plakat; c1990. 1 poster: color, 66 x 48 cm. Russian.
  • Print or photograph with date estimated
    • Kennedy RA. [Christian B. Anfinsen] [photograph]. [Bethesda (MD)]: National Institutes of Health (US), Photographic Research Section; [1952?]. 1 print: black & white, 10 x 8 in.
    • First aid packet: first aid help for wounds [photograph]. [place unknown: publisher unknown; circa 1900]. 1 photograph: black & white, 5 x 6 in. Located at: Prints and Photographs Collection, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD; Order No.: A022483.
  • Print or photograph with no date of publication found
    • Darbois D. [A young boy in Japan with polio] [photograph]. [Geneva]: World Health Organization; [date unknown]. 1 photograph: black & white, 7 x 10 in.
  • Print or photograph with no place, publisher, or date of publication found
    • Johan Freyer [print]. [place, publisher, date unknown]. 1 print: black & white, 6 x 7 in. Located at: Prints and Photographs Collection, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD; Order No. B012357.
  • Print or photograph with physical description
    • Kyllingstad H. Indian hospital [photograph]. [place unknown: publisher unknown]; 1951. 1 photograph: black & white, 7 x 9 in.
    • [Men in uniform] [print]. New York: G.W. Averell; 1875. 1 print: sepia, 10 x 12 in.
    • Vedin A, Maliutina O. Prichina-alkogol' [poster]. Moscow: Izdatel'stvo Plakat; c1990. 1 poster: color, 66 x 48 cm. Russian.
  • Print or photograph with a series
    • Thom RA. Pharmacy in Ancient China (about 2000 B.C.) [print]. [place unknown]: Parke Davis & Company; 1951. 1 print: color, 8 1/2 x 11 in. (A history of pharmacy in pictures; 3).
  • Print or photograph with the name of library or other archive included
    • Johan Freyer [print]. [place, publisher, date unknown]. 1 print: black & white. Located at: Prints and Photographs Collection, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD; Order No. B012357.
  • Print or photograph with supplemental note included
    • Riley J, artist. [John Freke] [print]. [place unknown: publisher unknown]; 1718. 1 print: black & white, 6 x 9 in. From a sculpture by Vertue.
    • Thom RA. Pharmacy in Ancient China (about 2000 B.C.) [print]. [place unknown]: Parke Davis & Company; 1951. 1 print: color, 8 1/2 x 11 in. (A history of pharmacy in pictures; 3). Shows Shen Nung, a Chinese emperor, examining herbs.
    • Kyllingstad H. Indian hospital [photograph]. [place unknown: publisher unknown]; 1951. 1 photograph: black & white, 7 x 9 in. Taken at the Santa Fe Indian Hospital, New Mexico.
    • Baron DA, photographer. Would you be more careful if it was you that got pregnant? [poster]. California: Pharmacists Planning Service, Inc.; c1986. 1 poster: halftone, 11 x 17 in. Sponsored by Clinica de la Raza, Oakland, California.
    • Spellman DD. [Hugo A. Freund] [photograph]. Detroit: [publisher unknown]; 1948 Feb. 1 photograph: black & white, 8 x 11 in. Autographed; letter attached.
    • [The hand Jenner used as a source for his vaccine] [print]. Milan (Italy): Lier; 1923. 1 print: black & white. Facsimile of 1798 drawing by Jenner.