☰ Menu

Citing biomedical documents - National Library of Medicine (NLM) style

Citing journal articles in audiovisual formats
National Library of Medicine (NLM) style

Patrias K. Citing medicine: the NLM style guide for authors, editors, and publishers [Internet]. 2nd ed. Wendling DL, technical editor. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2007 [updated 2009 Oct 21; cited 2010 Apr 30]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/citingmedicine

Components/elements listed in the order they should appear in a reference: (R) = required, (O) = optional

Author (R) | Author Affiliation (O) | Article Title (R) | Journal Title (R) | Edition (R) | Type of Medium (R) | Date of Publication (R) | Volume Number (R) | Issue Number (R) | Location (Pagination) (R) | Physical Description (O) | Language (R) | Notes (O)

  • Standard article in audiovisual format
    • Vassar GJ, Harris JM, Teichman JM. Techniques in percutaneous nephrolithotomy using the Holmium:Yag laser. Videourol Times [videocassette]. 1998;11(2):[presentation 6, 10 min.]. 1 videocassette: sound, color, 1/2 in.
    • Kalloo AN. Nonsurgical management of gallstones. Johns Hopkins Med Grand Rounds [audiocassette]. 1993 Jun;19(5):Side E [presentation 4, 22 min.]. 1 audiocassette: 1 7/8 ips.
  • Article in audiovisual format with optional full first names for authors
    • Centurion, Virgilio; Caballero, Jean Carlos. Hyperopic shift after phacoemulsification in eyes with previous radial keratotomy. Video J Cataract Refract Surg [videocassette]. 2005;21(3):[presentation 3, 23 min.]. 1 videocassette: sound, color, 1/2 in.
  • Article in audiovisual format with author having designation of family rank
    • Ball WC Jr. Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia. Johns Hopkins Med Grand Rounds [audiocassette]. 1990 May;16(5):Side G [presentation 5, 13 min.]. 1 audiocassette: 1 7/8 ips.
  • Article in audiovisual format with author having prefix or particle
    • Van der Werf F. Cobalt. Eur Video J Cardiol [videocassette]. 1996;4(6):[presentation 1, 20 min.]. 1 videocassette: sound, color, 1/2 in.
  • Article in audiovisual format with author having compound last name
    • South-Paul JE. Common gynecologic complaints. Audio Dig Fam Pract [audiocassette]. 1995 Dec 4;43(45):Side A [presentation 1, 28 min.]. 1 audiocassette: 1 7/8 ips.
  • Article in audiovisual format with editors instead of authors
    • Sanger JM, Sanger JW, editors. Cell motility and the cytoskeleton. Cell Motil Cytoskelet Video Suppl [videocassette]. 1998;(5):[60 min.]. 1 videocassette: sound, color with black & white, 1/2 in.
  • Article in audiovisual format with no author found
    • OPO certification. Transpl Video J [videocassette]. 2000 Fall;(12):[presentation 2, 8 min.]. 1 videocassette: sound, color, 1/2 in.
  • Article in audiovisual format with author affiliation included
    • Nakada SY (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI), Moon TD (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI), Wolf JS Jr (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI). Hand-assisted laparoscopic renal surgery. Videourol Times [videocassette]. 1998;11(2):[presentation 1, 12 min.]. 1 videocassette: sound, color, 1/2 in.
  • Article in audiovisual format with article title in a language other than English
    • Baraldini M, Ventrucci M, Cipolla A, Conci T, Calliv R, Roda A, Roda E. [A new, safe and simple breath test for the diagnosis of impaired digestion]. Video Riv Ital Med Chir [videocassette]. 1993 Sep-Dec;6(3):[article 2, 16 min.]. 1 videocassette: sound, color, 1/2 in. Italian.
  • Article in audiovisual format with article title in a language other than English with original language added
    • Baraldini M, Ventrucci M, Cipolla A, Conci T, Calliv R, Roda A, Roda E. Un nuovo, sicuro e semplice breath test per la diagnosi di maldigestione [A new, safe and simple breath test for the diagnosis of impaired digestion]. Video Riv Ital Med Chir [videocassette]. 1993 Sep-Dec;6(3):[article 2, 16 min.]. 1 videocassette: sound, color, 1/2 in. Italian.
  • Article in audiovisual format with article title constructed
    • Ruddle CJ, McKinley B, Taylor P, Schilder H, Morrison RS, Pederson DL. [Endodontics]. Dent Technol [videocassette]. 1993;1(2):[30 min.]. 1 videocassette: sound, color, 1/2 in.
    • [US transplant games]. Transpl Video J [videocassette]. 2000;Suppl:[11 min.]. 1 videocassette: sound, color, 1/2 in.
  • Article in audiovisual format with journal title having an edition
    • Connell E, Tatum H, Grimes D. Contraceptive science: a status report. First Image (OB GYN Ed) [videocassette]. 1986 May-Jun;1(6):[presentation 2, 17 min.]. 1 videocassette: sound, color, 3/4 in.
  • Article in audiovisual format with date showing month or other subdivision
    • Kalloo AN. Nonsurgical management of gallstones. Johns Hopkins Med Grand Rounds [audiocassette]. 1993 Jun;19(5):Side E [presentation 4, 22 min.]. 1 audiocassette: 1 7/8 ips.
    • OPO certification. Transpl Video J [videocassette]. 2000 Fall;(12):[presentation 2, 8 min.]. 1 videocassette: sound, color, 1/2 in.
    • Ezekowitz MD (Hahnemann Medical College, Philadelphia, PA). Antithrombotic agents in cardiothoracic surgery. VJCTS [videocassette]. 2001 4th Quarter;16(4):[segment 2, 13 min.]. 1 videocassette: sound, color, 1/2 in.
  • Article in audiovisual format with date showing multiple months of publication
    • Connell E, Tatum H, Grimes D. Contraceptive science: a status report. First Image (OB GYN Ed) [videocassette]. 1986 May-Jun;1(6):[presentation 2, 17 min.]. 1 videocassette: sound, color, 3/4 in.
  • Article in audiovisual format with supplement to a date
    • [US transplant games]. Transpl Video J [videocassette]. 2000;Suppl:[11 min.]. 1 videocassette: sound, color, 1/2 in.
  • Article in audiovisual format with standard volume and issue
    • Bradley WG Jr. MR of degenerative disc disease. MRI Updates Musculoskelet MRI [videocassette]. 2003;16(5):[presentation 1, 41 min.]. 1 videocassette: sound, color, 1/2 in.
  • Article in audiovisual format with volume only, no issue
    • Hawkins RJ, Fowler PJ, Steadman JR. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: bone-tendon-bone or hamstring. Issue Orthop [videocassette]. 1999;9:[2 hrs.]. 2 videocassettes: sound, color, 1/2 in.
  • Article in audiovisual format with no volume, only issue
    • OPO certification. Transpl Video J [videocassette]. 2000 Fall;(12):[presentation 2, 8 min.]. 1 videocassette: sound, color, 1/2 in.
  • Article in audiovisual format with standard location
    • Pohost GM. NMR spectroscopy and imaging of the heart. Video J Cardiol [videocassette]. 1990;5(3):[article 1, 17 min.]. 1 videocassette: sound, color, 1/2 in.
    • Wilson JH, Singhoffer JH. Paradoxical embolus in evolution: report of a case. Dyn Cardiovasc Imaging [videocassette]. 1990;3(1):[presentation 2, 4 min.]. 1 videocassette: sound, color, 1/2 in.
    • Demeure MJ. Strategies for parathyroid reoperation. VJGS [videocassette]. 1996 4th Quarter;5(4):[segment 3, 25 min.]. 1 videocassette: sound, color, 1/2 in.
    • Wolf JE Jr. Effect of low-fat diet on skin cancer. Dialogues Dermatol [audiocassette]. 1995 Dec ;37(3) :Side 2 [16 min.]. 1 audiocassette: 1 7/8 ips.
    • Sachs MI. Allergy testing: a dying dinosaur? Audio Dig Pediatr [audiocassette]. 1995 Dec 5;41(23):Side B [presentation 2, 22 min.]. 1 audiocassette: 1 7/8 ips.
  • Article in audiovisual format comprising the entire issue/cassette
    • Hawkins RJ, Fowler PJ, Steadman JR. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: bone-tendon-bone or hamstring. Issue Orthop [videocassette]. 1999;9:[2 hrs.]. 2 videocassettes: sound, color, 1/2 in.
    • Belvedere PC. Cosmetic placement, indirect inlays, and resin reinforced bridges. Video J Dent [videocassette]. 1997;6(4):[90 min.]. 1 videocassette: sound, color, 1/2 in.
    • Oleska JM. Lessons learned from the AIDs epidemic. Audio Dig Pediatr [audiocassette]. 1995 Sep 5;41(17):Side A-B [60 min.]. 1 audiocassette: 1 7/8 ips. Accompanied by: booklet with pre- and post-test questions.
  • Article in audiocassette format appearing on more than one side
    • Olsen RC. Irritable bowel syndrome. Audio Dig Fam Pract [audiocassette]. 1995 Oct 2;43(37):Side A-B [presentation 2, 34 min.]. 1 audiocassette: 1 7/8 ips. Accompanied by: booklet with post-test.
  • Article in audiovisual format with run time omitted
    • Baim DS, Sketch MH Sr. Four to six year outcome of Palmaz-Schatz stenting. ACCEL [audiocassette]. 1996 Jun;28(6):Side 3 [presentation 2]. 1 audiocassette: 1 7/8 ips.
  • Article in audiovisual format accompanied by a booklet or other material
    • Reeder JD. MRI of osseous neoplasm. MRI Updates Musculoskelet MRI [videocassette]. 2003;16(5):[presentation 3, 35 min.]. 1 videocassette: sound, color, 1/2 in. Accompanied by: 1 syllabus.
    • Olsen RC. Irritable bowel syndrome. Audio Dig Fam Pract [audiocassette]. 1995 Oct 2;43(37):Side A-B [presentation 2, 34 min.]. 1 audiocassette: 1 7/8 ips. Accompanied by: booklet with post-test.
  • Article in audiovisual format with supplemental note
    • Wolf JE Jr. Effect of low-fat diet on skin cancer. Dialogues Dermatol [audiocassette]. 1995 Dec ;37(3) :Side 2 [16 min.]. 1 audiocassette: 1 7/8 ips. Accompanied by: booklet with learning objectives, quiz, and bibliography. Interviewed by Stewart M. Brown.
    • CAPOTEN: captopril. Drugs Devices [videocassette]. 1984 May;2(3):[presentation 4, 16 min.]. 1 videocassette: sound, color, 3/4 in. Located at: National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD; W1 DR892EG.
    • Baim DS, Sketch MH Sr. Four to six year outcome of Palmaz-Schatz stenting. ACCEL [audiocassette]. 1996 Jun;28(6):Side 3 [presentation 2]. 1 audiocassette: 1 7/8 ips. ACCEL is published by the American College of Cardiology.