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Citing biomedical documents - National Library of Medicine (NLM) style

Citing journal titles in audiovisual formats
National Library of Medicine (NLM) style

Patrias K. Citing medicine: the NLM style guide for authors, editors, and publishers [Internet]. 2nd ed. Wendling DL, technical editor. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2007 [updated 2009 Oct 21; cited 2010 Apr 30]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/citingmedicine

Components/elements listed in the order they should appear in a reference: (R) = required, (O) = optional

Title (R) | Edition (R) | Type of Medium (R) | Editor (O) | Place of Publication (R) | Publisher (R) | Volume Number (R) | Issue Number (R) | Date of Publication (R) | Physical Description (O) | Language (R) | Notes (O)

  • Standard audiovisual journal title that is still being published
    • Pulse: Emergency Medical Update [videocassette]. Easton (PA): Radiological Society of North America. Vol. 1, 1996 - . Videocassettes: sound, color, 1/2 in.
    • General Surgery [audiocassette]. Glendale (CA): Audio-Digest Foundation. Vol. 37, No. 1, Jan 10, 1990 - . Audiocassettes: 1 7/8 ips.
  • Standard audiovisual journal title that has ceased publication
    • Leadership in Hospital Governance [videocassette]. Chicago: American Hospital Association. Vol. 1, No. 1, 1992 - Vol. 1, No. 6, 1992. Videocassettes: sound, color, 1/2 in.
    • Reflections on Cardiac Surgery [audiocassette]. Rancho Mirage (CA): Desert Heart Institute Foundation. Vol. 1, No. 1, 1989 - Vol. 6, No. 5, 1989. Audiocassettes: 1 7/8 ips.
    • Illustrated Case Reports in Gastroenterology [slide]. London: Chapman & Hall. Vol. 1, No. 1, Nov 1994 - Vol. 4, No. 3-4, Sep-Dec 1997. Slides: color, 2 x 2 in.
  • Audiovisual journal title with subtitle
    • RSNA Today: the Video Digest of Imaging Science, Technology and News [videocassette]. Easton (PA): Radiological Society of North America. Vol. 1, 1987 - Vol. 7, 1993. Videocassettes: sound, color, 1/2 in.
  • Audiovisual journal title with edition
    • First Image: the Video Journal of Medicine (OB/GYN Edition) [videocassette]. Englewood (CO): First Image Corp. Vol. 1, No. 1, Jun 1984 - Vol. 1, No. 7, May 1987. Videocassettes: sound, color, 3/4 in.
  • Audiovisual journal title not in English
    • Video Rivista Italiana di Gastroenterologia (Edizione Endoscopia Digestiva) [videocassette]. Rome: Video Intermedical Book. Vol. 1, 1988 - Vol. 7, 1994. Videocassettes: sound, color, 1/2 in. Italian.
  • Audiovisual journal title not in English, with optional translation
    • Video Rivista Italiana di Gastroenterologia (Edizione Endoscopia Digestiva) [Italian Video Review of Gastroenterology (Digestive Endoscopy Edition)] [videocassette]. Rome: Video Intermedical Book. Vol. 1, 1988 - Vol. 7, 1994. Videocassettes: sound, color, 1/2 in. Italian.
  • Audiovisual journal title published in multiple languages
    • Video-Revista de Cirugia [videocassette]. Barcelona: Asociacion Europea de Video-Cirugia. Vol. 1, 1984 - . Videocassettes: sound, color, 1/2 in. Spanish, English, French, Italian.
  • Audiovisual journal title with well-known place of publication
    • Audio Journal of Oncology [audiocassette]. London: Audio Medica. Vol. 1, No. 1, 1993 - Vol. 3, No. 4, 1995. Audiocassettes: 1 7/8 ips.
  • Audiovisual journal title with lesser-known place of publication
    • Medical Outlook for Infertility Specialists [audiocassette]. Ossining (NY): Cortlandt Group Inc. Vol. 1, No. 1, 1989 - . Audiocassettes: 1 7/8 ips.
  • Audiovisual journal title with unknown place of publication
    • European Video Journal of Cardiology [videocassette]. [place unknown]: ESC. Vol. 1, No. 1, 1992 - Vol. 4, No. 6, 1996. Videocassettes: sound, color, 1/2 in.
  • Audiovisual journal title with well-known publisher
    • Equine Video Journal [videocassette]. Rahway (NJ): Merck. Vol. 1, No. 1, Summer 1988 - . Videocassettes: sound, color, 1/2 in.
  • Audiovisual journal title with publisher having subsidiary part
    • Resource: a Monthly Audio Digest of Current Issues in Health Care Risk Management [audiocassette]. Cambridge (MA): Harvard Medical Institutions Inc., Risk Management Foundation. Aug 1985-Feb 1994. Audiocassettes: 1 7/8 ips.
  • Audiovisual journal title with volume and issue number
    • Video Journal of General Surgery [videocassette]. St. Louis (MO): Medical Video Productions. Vol. 1, No. 1, 1992 - Vol. 5, No. 4, 1996. Videocassettes: sound, color, 1/2 in.
  • Audiovisual journal title with issue number, but no volume
    • Perspectives: the Joint Commission Television Journal [videocassette]. Chicago: New Year Productions. No. 1, 1987 - No. 4, 1988. Videocassettes: sound, color, 1/2 in.
  • Audiovisual journal title without volume or issue numbers
    • Health Plans, HIPAA, and COBRA Update: Current ERISA, Tax, and Other Issues for Attorneys, Administrators, Insurers, and Consultants [videocassette]. Philadelphia: American Law Institute-American Bar Association Committee on Continuing Professional Education. 1998 - . Videocassettes: sound, color, 1/2 in.
    • AMT Video Digest [videocassette]. Chicago: American Medical Association. Aug 1991-Sep 1992. Videocassettes: sound, color, 1/2 in.
  • Audiovisual journal title with multiple month(s) in date
    • Practical Reviews in Dermatology [audiocassette]. Birmingham (AL): Educational Reviews, Inc. Vol. 1, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1989 - Vol. 7, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1995. Audiocassettes: 1 7/8 ips.
  • Audiovisual journal title with days of the month included in date
    • Gastroenterology [audiocassette]. Glendale (CA): Audio-Digest Foundation. Vol. 1, No. 1, Apr 30, 1987 - . Audiocassettes: 1 7/8 ips.
  • Audiovisual journal title with season in date
    • Equine Video Journal [videocassette]. Rahway (NJ): Merck. Vol. 1, No. 1, Summer 1988 - . Videocassettes: sound, color, 1/2 in.
  • Audiovisual journal title previously published under another name
    • Clinical Advances in Cardio-respiratory Care [audiocassette]. Birmingham (AL): Educational Reviews. Vol. 5, No. 5, 1994 - Vol. 6, No. 3, 1994. Audiocassettes: 1 7/8 ips. Continues: In Service Reviews in Respiratory Therapy.
  • Audiovisual journal title continuing to be published under another name
    • Dynamic Cardiovascular Imaging [videocassette]. Silver Spring (MD): Dynamedia, Inc. Vol. 1, No. 1, Spring 1987 - Vol. 3, No. 4, Oct 1990. Videocassettes: sound, color, 1/2 in. Continued by: Video Journal of Echocardiography.
  • Audiovisual journal title with sponsorship note
    • Audio Journal of Oncology [audiocassette]. London: Audio Medica. Vol. 1, No. 1, 1993 - Vol. 3, No. 4, 1995. Audiocassettes: 1 7/8 ips. Sponsored by the British Oncological Association.
  • Audiovisual journal title with frequency of publication note
    • Waltham Forum Video for Small Animal Practitioners [videocassette]. Lawrenceville (NJ): Veterinary Learning Systems Co. Vol. 1, 1991 - . Videocassettes: sound, color, 1/2 in. Quarterly.
    • Video Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery [videocassette]. St. Louis (MO): Medical Video Productions. Vol. 10, No. 1, 1996 - Vol. 15, No. 4, 2001. Videocassettes: sound, color, 1/2 in. Bimonthly.
    • General Surgery [audiocassette]. Glendale (CA): Audio-Digest Foundation. Vol. 37, No. 1, Jan 10, 1990 - . Audiocassettes: 1 7/8 ips. 24 issues per year. Continues: Audio-digest. Surgery.
    • Medical Outlook for Infertility Specialists [audiocassette]. Ossining (NY): Cortlandt Group Inc. Vol. 1, No. 1, 1989 - . Audiocassettes: 1 7/8 ips. Irregular.
  • Audiovisual journal title with ISSN note
    • Video Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery [videocassette]. St. Louis (MO): Medical Video Productions. Vol. 10, No. 1, 1996 - Vol. 15, No. 4, 2001. Videocassettes: sound, color, 1/2 in. ISSN: 1086-6841.
  • Audiovisual journal title with note on a library where it may be located
    • Leadership in Hospital Governance [videocassette]. Chicago: American Hospital Association. Vol. 1, No. 1, 1992 - Vol. 1, No. 6, 1992. Videocassettes: sound, color, 1/2 in. Located at: National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD; W1 LE11M.
  • Audiovisual journal title with distributor note
    • European Video Journal of Cardiology [videocassette]. [place unknown]: ESC. Vol. 1, No. 1, 1992 - Vol. 4, No. 6, 1996. Videocassettes: sound, color, 1/2 in. Distributed by Kluwer Academic Publishers, Hingham, MA.
  • Audiovisual journal title accompanied by other types of material
    • Pulse: Emergency Medical Update [videocassette]. Easton (PA): Radiological Society of North America. Vol. 1, 1996 - . Videocassettes: sound, color, 1/2 in. Accompanied by: Training objective/instructors guide.
  • Audiovisual journal title with examples of other notes
    • European Video Journal of Cardiology [videocassette]. [place unknown]: ESC. Vol. 1, No. 1, 1992 - Vol. 4, No. 6, 1996. Videocassettes: sound, color, 1/2 in. ESC is the European Society of Cardiology.
    • General Surgery [audiocassette]. Glendale (CA): Audio-Digest Foundation. Vol. 37, 1990 - . Audiocassettes: 1 7/8 ips. Continues: Audio-digest. Surgery. Also available on CD-ROM.