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Citing biomedical documents - National Library of Medicine (NLM) style

Citing journal titles on the Internet
National Library of Medicine (NLM) style

Patrias K. Citing medicine: the NLM style guide for authors, editors, and publishers [Internet]. 2nd ed. Wendling DL, technical editor. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2007 [updated 2009 Oct 21; cited 2010 Apr 30]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/citingmedicine

Components/elements listed in the order they should appear in a reference: (R) = required, (O) = optional

Title (R) | Edition (R) | Type of Medium (R) | Editor (O) | Place of Publication (R) | Publisher (R) | Volume Number (R) | Issue Number (R) | Date of Publication (R) | Date of Citation (R) | Availability (R) | Language (R) | Notes (O)

  • Standard Internet journal title that is still being published
    • European Respiratory Journal [Internet]. Lausanne (Switzerland): European Respiratory Society. Vol. 1, No. 1, Jan 1988 - [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://erj.ersjournals.com/.
    • Structure and Dynamics: ejournal of Anthropological and Related Sciences [Internet]. Irvine (CA): University of California. Vol. 1, No. 1, 2005 - [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://repositories.cdlib.org/imbs/socdyn/sdeas/.
  • Standard Internet journal title that has ceased publication
    • Actinomycetes [Internet]. Udine (Italy): University of Udine, Mycology Department. Vol. 1, No. 1, 1990 - Vol. 10, No. 1, 2000 [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.bioline.org.br/ac
  • Internet journal title with subtitle
    • The Virtual Mentor: American Medical Association Journal of Ethics [Internet]. Chicago: American Medical Association. Sep 1999 - [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/category/3040.html
  • Internet journal title with lowercase or capital letters/special characters
    • eCOMMUNITY: International Journal of Mental Health & Addiction [Internet]. [Morgantown (WV)]: West Virginia University, Department of Behavioral Medicine & Psychiatry, Professional Advanced Services. Vol. 1, No. 1, Sep 15, 2003 - Vol. 3, No. 2, Nov 21, 2005 [cited 2007 Jan 29]. Available from: http://www.ijma-journal.com/issues.php Continued by: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction.
    • Forest@ [Internet]. [place unknown]: Societa Italiana di Selvicoltura ed Ecologia Forestale. Vol. 1, No. 1, Oct 2004 - [cited 2007 Jan 29]. Available from: http://www.sisef.it/forest@/index.php Italian, English.
    • PLoS Clinical Trials [Internet]. Cambridge (UK): Public Library of Science. Vol. 1, No. 1, Apr 21, 2006 - [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.plosclinicaltrials.org/.
  • Internet journal title with section or part
    • Acta Crystallographica. Section E, Structure Reports Online [Internet]. Chester (England): International Union of Crystallography. Vol. E57, Pt 1, Jan 1, 2001 - [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://journals.iucr.org/e/contents/backissues.html
    • Estimates. Part 3, Report on Plans and Priorities [Internet]. Ottawa (ON): Canadian Institutes of Health Research. 2001-2002 - [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://dsp-psd.pwgsc.gc.ca/Collection/BT31-2-2002-III-30E.pdf
  • Internet journal title with edition
    • Physician's Weekly (Surgery Edition) [Internet]. Englishtown (NJ): Physician's Weekly, LLC. Vol. 1, No. 1, Jan 12, 2004 - [cited 2007 Jan 29]. Available from: http://www.physiciansweekly.com/index_se.asp
  • Internet journal title not in English
    • Deutsche Zeitschrift fur Sportmedizin [Internet]. Koln (Germany): Deutscher Arzte-Verlag. Vol. 49, No. 1, 1998 - [cited 2007 Jan 29]. Available from: http://www.zeitschrift-sportmedizin.de/zeitschr.htm German. Print publication began in 1978.
    • PISTES: Perspectives Interdisciplinaires Sur le Travail Et la Sante [Internet]. Montreal (QC): IRSST. Vol 1, No 1, Nov 1999 - [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.unites.uqam.ca/pistes/. French.
    • Anestesia Pediatrica e Neonatale [Internet]. Foggia (Italy): Anestesia Pediatrica e Neonatale. Vol. 1, No. 1, Mar-Apr 2003 - [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.anestesiapediatrica.it Italian, with some articles in English and Spanish.
  • Internet journal title not in English, with optional translation
    • Deutsche Zeitschrift fur Sportmedizin [German Journal for Sports Medicine] [Internet]. Koln (Germany): Deutscher Arzte-Verlag. Vol. 49, No. 1, 1998 - [cited 2007 Jan 29]. Available from: http://www.zeitschrift-sportmedizin.de/zeitschr.htm German. Print publication began in 1978.
    • PISTES: Perspectives Interdisciplinaires Sur le Travail Et la Sante [PISTES: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Work and Health] [Internet]. Montreal (QC): IRSST. Vol. 1, No. 1, Nov 1999 - [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.unites.uqam.ca/pistes/. French.
    • Anestesia Pediatrica e Neonatale [Pediatric and Neonatal Anesthesia] [Internet]. Foggia (Italy): Anestesia Pediatrica e Neonatale. Vol. 1, No. 1, Mar-Apr 2003 - [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.anestesiapediatrica.it Italian, with some articles in English and Spanish.
  • Internet journal title published in multiple languages
    • Action Against Infection: a Newsletter for WHO and Its Partners [Internet]. Geneva: World Health Organization, CDS Information Resource Centre. No. 1, Dec 1999 - Vol. 4, No. 5, 2nd Semester 2004 [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.who.int/infectious-disease-news/newsletter/. English, French, Spanish.
  • Internet journal title published in two or more equal languages
    • Actualites en Bref pour Maladies Infectieuses = Infectious Diseases News Brief [Internet]. Ottawa (ON): Public Health Agency of Canada. Jan 7, 2000 - [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/bid-bmi/dsd-dsm/nb-ab/index.html ; http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/bid-bmi/dsd-dsm/nb-ab/index_f.html French, English.
  • Internet journal title with current editor name provided
    • Neurosurgical Focus [Internet]. John Anthony Jane, editor. Charlottesville (VA): American Association of Neurological Surgeons. Vol. 1, No. 1, Jul 1996 - [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.aans.org/education/journal/neurosurgical/default.asp
  • Internet journal title with well-known place of publication
    • The amfAR treatment insider [Internet]. New York: American Foundation for AIDS Research. Vol. 1, No. 1, Feb 2000 - Vol. 5, No. 8, Dec 2004 [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://web.amfar.org/treatment/TI/insidermenu.asp
  • Internet journal title with geographic qualifier added to place of publication for clarity
    • The Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases [Internet]. Botucatu (Brazil): Universidade Estadual Paulista, Centro de Estudos de Venenos e Animais Peconhentos. Vol. 9, No. 1, 2003 - [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci%5Fserial&pid=1678-9199&lng=en&nrm=iso Continues: The Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins [CD-ROM].
  • Internet journal title with place of publication inferred
    • NCI Cancer Bulletin [Internet]. [Bethesda (MD)]: National Cancer Institute (US). Vol. 1, No. 1, Jan 6, 2004 - [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://cancer.gov/ncicancerbulletin
    • RHP&EO [Internet]. [France]: International Union for Health Promotion and Education. 2000 - [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.rhpeo.org/.
    • Advances in Disease Surveillance [Internet]. [Boston]: International Society for Disease Surveillance. Vol. 1, 2006 - [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.isdsjournal.org/.
  • Internet journal title with unknown place of publication
    • Thoracic Surgical Science [Internet]. [place unknown]: GMS. Vol. 1, 2004 - [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.egms.de/en/journals/tss/index.shtml
  • Internet journal title with publisher having subsidiary part
    • WHO Policy Perspectives on Medicine [Internet]. Geneva: World Health Organization, Essential Drugs and Medicines Policy Department. No. 1, Dec 2000 - [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.who.int/medicines/publications/policyperspectives/en/.
  • Internet journal title with government agency as publisher
    • Amber Waves: the Economics of Food, Farming, Natural Resources, and Rural America [Internet]. Washington: Department of Agriculture (US), Economic Research Service. Vol. 1, No. 1, Feb 2003 - [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS27344
  • Internet journal title with joint publishers
    • Neurosurgical Focus [Internet]. Charlottesville (VA): American Association of Neurological Surgeons. Vol. 1, No. 1, Jul 1996 - [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.aans.org/education/journal/neurosurgical/default.asp Jointly published by the Journal of Neurosurgery.
  • Internet journal title with publisher name translated
    • Pernatyie Khishchniki = Raptors Conservation [Internet]. Novosibirsk (Russia): [Siberian Environmental Center]. No. 1, 2005 - [cited 2007 Jan 29]. Available from: http://ecoclub.nsu.ru/raptors/RC Russian, English.
  • Internet journal title with unknown publisher
    • The International Journal of Forensic Psychology [Internet]. [Australia]: [publisher unknown]. Vol. 1, No. 1, May 2003 - [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://pandora.nla.gov.au/tep/35811
  • Internet journal title with unknown place of publication and publisher
    • Haptics-e: the Electronic Journal of Haptics [Internet]. [place unknown: publisher unknown]. Vol. 1, No. 1, Oct. 7, 1999 - [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.haptics-e.org/.
  • Internet journal title with standard volume and issue number
    • Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences [Internet]. Mumbai (India): Medknow Publications. Vol. 1, No. 1, Jan 2006 - [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.pediatricneurosciences.com/.
  • Internet journal title with volume having another name
    • Alasbimn Journal: Revista de Medicina Nuclear [Internet]. Santiago (Chile): Universidad de Chile. Year 1, No. 1, Sep 1998 - [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www2.alasbimnjournal.cl/alasbimn/CDA/CDA_Journal_Index/. Spanish, English.
    • Digest of Neurology and Psychiatry: Abstracts and Reviews of Selected Literature in Psychiatry, Neurology, and their Allied Fields [Internet]. Hartford (CT): Hartford Hospital, Institute of Living. Series 69, Winter 2001 - [cited 2007 Jan 29]. Available from: http://www.instituteofliving.org/Education/Digest/digest.htm Print available from Series 12, Nov 1944.
  • Internet journal title with volumes viewable for online version different from print version
    • American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation [Internet]. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders. Vol. 31, No. 1, Jan 1998 - [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.ajkd.org/issues Print version from Vol. 1, 1981.
    • European Journal of Biochemistry [Internet]. Oxford (UK): Blackwell Science Ltd. Vol. 259, No. 1-2, Jan 1999 - Vol. 271, No. 23-24, Dec 2004 [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://content.febsjournal.org/. Print version began with Vol. 1, 1967.
  • Internet journal title with volume number and year the same
    • Neurology and Clinical Neurophysiology [Internet]. Cambridge (MA): MIT Press. Vol. 2000, Apr 2000 - Vol. 2005, Dec 16, 2005 [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://bibpurl.oclc.org/web/10279 Continues: Journal of Contemporary Neurology. Continued by: Neurology, Neurophysiology, and Neuroscience.
  • Internet journal title with volume number but no issue
    • Enformatika: Transactions on Engineering, Computing and Technology [Internet]. [place unknown]: World Enformatika Society. Vol. 1, 2004 - [cited 2007 Jan 29]. Available from: http://www.enformatika.org/data/.
  • Internet journal title with issue number, but no volume
    • Veterinary Sciences Tomorrow [Internet]. Utrecht (Netherlands): VetScite. No. 1, Jan 2001 - [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.vetscite.org/.
  • Internet journal title with multiple issue numbers
    • European Journal of Biochemistry [Internet]. Oxford (UK): Blackwell Science Ltd. Vol. 259, No. 1-2, Jan 1999 - Vol. 271, No. 23-24, Dec 2004 [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://content.febsjournal.org/.
    • Electronic Transactions on Artificial Intelligence [Internet]. Linkoping (Sweden): Linkopings Universitet, Institutionen for Datavetenskap. Vol. 1, No. 1-3, Jan-Sep 1997 - Vol. 5, No. B2, 2001 [cited 2007 Jan 29]. Available from: http://www.ida.liu.se/ext/etai/.
  • Internet journal with article numbering in place of volume and issue
    • The Online Journal of Current Clinical Trials [Internet]. London: Chapman & Hall. Document No. 1, 1992 - Document No. 200-201, 1996 [cited 2007 Mar 20]. Available from: http://firstsearch.oclc.org/journal=1059-2725;screen=info;ECOIP By subscription only.
    • Tracking Reports [Internet]. Washington: Center for Studying Health System Change. Report No. 1, Mar 2002 - [cited 2007 Mar 20]. Available from: http://www.hschange.com/index.cgi?func=pubs&what=15
  • Internet journal title with date only, no volume, issue, or article numbers
    • Molecular Systems Biology [Internet]. London: Nature Publishing Group. Mar 2005 - [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.nature.com/msb/index.html
    • Actualites en Bref pour Maladies Infectieuses = Infectious Diseases News Brief [Internet]. Ottawa (ON): Public Health Agency of Canada. Jan 7, 2000 - [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/bid-bmi/dsd-dsm/nb-ab/index.html ; http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/bid-bmi/dsd-dsm/nb-ab/index_f.html French, English.
    • Health Hazards of Smoke [Internet]. Missoula (MT): Forest Service (US), Missoula Technology & Development Center. Summer 1990 - Spring 2001 [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS49349
    • Addictions: an International Research Journal [Internet]. Woodbridge (ON): Vitanova Foundation. 1996 - 2002 [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.vitanova.on.ca/.
  • Internet journal title with multiple month(s) or years in date
    • AAPS PharmSci [Internet]. Alexandria (VA): American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists. Vol. 1, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1999 - Vol. 6, No. 2, 2004 [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.aapsj.org/.
    • The World Wide Web Journal of Biology [Internet]. Plymouth (MN): Epress Inc. Vol. 1, Oct 1995-Nov 1996 - [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.epress.com/w3jbio/.
    • International Journal of Human Sciences [Internet]. [Turkey]: Uluslararasý Insan Bilimleri Dergisi. Vol. 1, No. 1, 2002-2004 - [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://insanbilimleri.com/en/.
  • Internet journal title with days of the month included in date
    • PLoS Clinical Trials [Internet]. Cambridge (UK): Public Library of Science. Vol. 1, No. 1, Apr 21, 2006 - [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.plosclinicaltrials.org/.
    • AIDScience [Internet]. Washington: American Association for the Advancement of Science. Vol. 1, No. 1, Jun 15, 2001 - Vol. 3, No. 23, Dec 5, 2003 [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://aidscience.com/Backissues.asp
  • Internet journal title with season in date
    • Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics [Internet]. Louisville (KY): Multimed Inc. Vol. 1, No. 1, Winter 2000 - [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.jacmp.org/.
    • Health Hazards of Smoke [Internet]. Missoula (MT): Forest Service (US), Missoula Technology & Development Center. Summer 1990 - Spring 2001 [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS49349
  • Internet journal title with other division to date than month or season
    • Action Against Infection: a Newsletter for WHO and Its Partners [Internet]. Geneva: World Health Organization, CDS Information Resource Centre. No. 1, Dec 1999 - Vol. 4, No. 5, 2nd Semester 2004 [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.who.int/infectious-disease-news/newsletter/. English, French, Spanish.
  • Internet journal title with multiple URLs
    • Emerging Infectious Diseases [Internet]. Atlanta (GA): Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US), National Center for Infectious Diseases. Vol. 3, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1997 - [cited 2007 Jan 29]. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/eid/index.html ; http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS2039 Print version from Vol. 1, 1995.
  • Internet journal title previously published under another name
    • The Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases [Internet]. Botucatu (Brazil): Universidade Estadual Paulista, Centro de Estudos de Venenos e Animais Peconhentos. Vol. 9, No. 1, 2003 - [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci%5Fserial&pid=1678-9199&lng=en&nrm=iso Continues: The Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins [CD-ROM].
    • Access Management Journal [Internet]. Washington: National Association of Healthcare Access Management. Vol. 28, No. 3, Jun 2003 - [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: https://www.naham.org/custom/journal/backissues.cfm Continues: NAHAM Access Management Journal.
  • Internet journal title continuing to be published under another name
    • Neurology and Clinical Neurophysiology [Internet]. Cambridge (MA): MIT Press. Apr 2000 - Dec 16, 2005 [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://bibpurl.oclc.org/web/10279 Continues: Journal of Contemporary Neurology. Continued by: Neurology, Neurophysiology, and Neuroscience.
  • Internet journal title with sponsorship note
    • Sleep Research Online [Internet]. Los Angeles: WebSciences. Vol. 1, No. 1, 1998 - [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.sro.org/. Published on behalf of the World Federation of Sleep Research Societies.
  • Internet journal title with frequency of publication note
    • The Virtual Mentor: American Medical Association Journal of Ethics [Internet]. Chicago: American Medical Association. Sep 1999 - [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/category/3040.html Monthly.
    • Homeopathy Online: a Journal of Homeopathic Medicine [Internet]. [place unknown]: Homeopathy Mailing List. Vol. 1, No. 1, Mar-Apr 1996 - No. 6, 2000 [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.lyghtforce.com/HomeopathyOnline/. Irregular.
  • Internet journal title with ISSN note
    • Medical Education Online [Internet]. [place unknown]: Medical Education Online. Vol. 1, 1996 - [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.med-ed-online.org/. ISSN: 1087-2981.
  • Internet journal title with note on the print version
    • Problems in General Surgery [Internet]. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Williams & Wilkins. Vol. 18, No. 1, Mar 2001 - Vol. 20, No. 4, Dec 2003 [cited 2007 Jan 24]. Available from: http://gateway.ovid.com/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS&MODE=ovid&NEWS=n&PAGE=toc&D=ovft&AN=00013452-000000000-00000 The print version began with Vol. 1 in 1984.
  • Internet journal title with system requirements
    • The World Wide Web Journal of Biology [Internet]. Plymouth (MN): Epress Inc. Vol. 1, Oct 1995-Nov 1996 - [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.epress.com/w3jbio/. System Requirements: This site is best viewed with Netscape Navigator 3.0 or Microsoft Internet Explorer 3.0 or higher.
    • Shi yong jun xue bao [Internet]. Beijing: Zhongguo xue shu qi kan (guang pan ban) dian zi za zhi she. Vol. 7, No. 1, 2000 - [cited 2007 Jan 29]. Available from: http://cjn.lib.hku.hk Chinese. System Requirements: CAJ viewer is required to view full text.
  • Internet journal title with examples of other notes
    • Eukaryotic Cell [Internet]. Washington: American Society for Microbiology. Vol. 1, No. 1, Feb 2002 - [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://ec.asm.org/. Subscription required for latest issues. After one year, articles available free from: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/tocrender.fcgi?journal=86
    • Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research Newsletter [Internet]. Geneva: Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research. No. 1, Sep 2000 - [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.alliance-hpsr.org/jahia/Jahia/lang/en/pid/20 Also issued in French, Spanish, and Chinese.
    • PISTES: Perspectives Interdisciplinaires Sur le Travail Et la Sante [Internet]. Montreal (QC): IRSST. Vol 1, No 1, Nov 1999 - [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.unites.uqam.ca/pistes/. French. IRSST is the Institut de Recherche Robert-Sauve en Sante et en Securite du Travail.
    • Neurology and Clinical Neurophysiology [Internet]. Cambridge (MA): MIT Press. Apr 2000 - Dec 16, 2005 [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://bibpurl.oclc.org/web/10279 Also called NCN.
    • Japanese Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medicine [Internet]. Kanazawa-shi Ishikawa (Japan): Japanese Society for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Vol. 1, No. 1, 2004 - [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://bibpurl.oclc.org/web/8553 Japanese version has title: Nihon Hokan Daitai Iryo Gakkaishi.