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Citing biomedical documents - National Library of Medicine (NLM) style

Citing journal articles
National Library of Medicine (NLM) style

Patrias K. Citing medicine: the NLM style guide for authors, editors, and publishers [Internet]. 2nd ed. Wendling DL, technical editor. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2007 [updated 2009 Oct 21; cited 2010 Apr 30]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/citingmedicine

Components/elements listed in the order they should appear in a reference: (R) = required, (O) = optional

Author (R) | Author Affiliation (O) | Article Title (R) | Article Type (O) | Journal Title (R) | Edition (R) | Type of Medium (R) | Date of Publication (R) | Supplement/Part/Special Number to a Date (R) | Volume Number (R) | Supplement/Part/Special Number to a Volume (R) | Issue Number (R) | Supplement/Part/Special Number to an Issue (R) | Location (Pagination) (R) | Physical Description (O) | Language (R) | Notes (O)

  • Standard journal article
    • Petitti DB, Crooks VC, Buckwalter JG, Chiu V. Blood pressure levels before dementia. Arch Neurol. 2005 Jan;62(1):112-6.
  • Journal article with many authors
    • Rastan S, Hough T, Kierman A, Hardisty R, Erven A, Gray IC, Voeling S, Isaacs A, Tsai H, Strivens M, Washbourne R, Thornton C, Greenaway S, Hewitt M, McCormick S, Selley R, Wells C, Tymowska-Lalanne Z, Roby P, Mburu P, Rogers D, Hagan J, Reavill C, Davies K, Glenister P, Fisher EM, Martin J, Vizor L, Bouzyk M, Kelsell D, Guenet JL, Steel KP, Sheardown S, Spurr N, Gray I, Peters J, Nolan PM, Hunter AJ, Brown SD. Towards a mutant map of the mouse--new models of neurological, behavioural, deafness, bone, renal and blood disorders. Genetica. 2004 Sep;122(1):47-9.
  • Journal article with organization as author
    • American Diabetes Association. Diabetes update. Nursing. 2003 Nov;Suppl:19-20, 24.
  • Journal article with organization as author, with subsidiary part of the organization included
    • Council of Europe, Steering Committee on Bioethics. Draft additional protocol to the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine, on biomedical research. J Int Bioethique. 2004 Mar;15(1):107-22.
  • Journal article with multiple organizations as author
    • American Dietetic Association; Dietitians of Canada. Position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada: nutrition and women's health. J Am Diet Assoc. 2004 Jun;104(6):984-1001.
  • Journal article with multiple organizations as author, with subsidiary part of the organization included
    • American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Pediatric Emergency Medicine; American College of Emergency Physicians, Pediatric Committee. Care of children in the emergency department: guidelines for preparedness. Pediatrics. 2001 Apr;107(4):777-81.
  • Journal article with governmental body as author
    • National Institutes of Health (US). End-of-life care. National Institutes of Health statement on the state of the science. AWHONN Lifelines. 2005 Feb-Mar;9(1):15-22.
  • Journal article with both a personal author and an organization as author
    • Orchard TJ, Temprosa M, Goldberg R, Haffner S, Ratner R, Marcovina S, Fowler S; Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. The effect of metformin and intensive lifestyle intervention on the metabolic syndrome: the Diabetes Prevention Program randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2005 Apr 19;142(8):611-9.
  • Journal article with a personal author and more than one organization as author
    • Mulligan K, Zackin R, Clark RA, Alston-Smith B, Liu T, Sattler FR, Delvers TB, Currier JS; AIDS Clinical Trials Group 329 Study Team; National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Adult AIDS Clinical Trials Group (US). Effect of nandrolone decanoate therapy on weight and lean body mass in HIV-infected women with weight loss: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial. Arch Intern Med. 2005 Mar 14;165(5):578-85.
  • Journal article with a personal author and note on the organization, as recommended by NISO
    • Orchard TJ, Temprosa M, Goldberg R, Haffner S, Ratner R, Marcovina S, Fowler S. The effect of metformin and intensive lifestyle intervention on the metabolic syndrome: the Diabetes Prevention Program randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2005 Apr 19;142(8):611-9. Authors are members of the Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group.
  • Journal article authors with designations of rank within a family
    • King JT Jr, Horowitz MB, Kassam AB, Yonas H, Roberts MS. The short form-12 and the measurement of health status in patients with cerebral aneurysms: performance, validity, and reliability. J Neurosurg. 2005 Mar;102(3):489-94.
  • Journal article authors with compound last names (give as found in the article)
    • Bruno-Ambrosius K, Yucel-Lindberg T, Twetman S. Salivary buffer capacity in relation to menarche and progesterone levels in saliva from adolescent girls: a longitudinal study. Acta Odontol Scand. 2004 Oct;62(5):269-72.
  • Journal article author names with particles, prepositions, prefixes (give as found in the article)
    • Abou Shabana K, el-Shiek M, el-Nazer M, Samir N. Women's perceptions and practices regarding their rights to reproductive health. East Mediterr Health J. 2003 May;9(3):296-308.
  • Journal article authors with romanized names
    • Nyporko AIu, Demchuk ON, Blium IaB. [Analysis of structural characteristics of alpha-tubulins in plants with enhanced cold tolerance] Tsitol Genet. 2003 Nov-Dec;37(6):3-11. Russian.
  • Journal article with no author provided
    • Pelvic floor exercise can reduce stress incontinence. Health News. 2005 Apr;11(4):11.
  • Journal article with author affiliation included (give the affiliation of only the first author or all authors)
    • Patterson F (Department of Psychology, City University, London EC1V 0HB. f.patterson@city.ac.uk), Ferguson E, Norfolk T, Lane P. A new selection system to recruit general practice registrars: preliminary findings from a validation study. BMJ. 2005 Mar 26;330(7493):711-4.
  • Journal article in a language other than English
    • Zhao L, Li H, Han D. [Effects of intestinal endotoxemia on the development of cirrhosis in rats]. Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi. 2001 Jul;9 Suppl:21-3. Chinese.
  • Journal article in a language other than English with optional original language title included
    • Calera Rubio AA, Roel Valdes JM, Casal Lareo A, Gadea Merino R, Rodrigo Cencillo F. Riesgo quimico laboral: elementos para un diagnostico en Espana [Occupational chemical risk: elements for a diagnostic in Spain]. Rev Esp Salud Publica. 2005 Mar-Apr;79(2):283-95. Spanish.
  • Journal article published in two equal languages
    • Warnock GL. Quality care is job one = Les soins de qualite font du chemin. Can J Surg. 2005 Feb;48(1):6-8. English, French.
  • Journal article published in multiple languages
    • Mittelmark MB, Lamarre MC. The IUHPE's response to the Tsunami disaster. Promot Educ. 2004;11(4):203, 222, 237. English, French, Spanish.
  • Journal article title beginning with a lower case letter
    • Yao S, Zhang Y, Li J. c-jun/AP-1 activation does not affect the antiproliferative activity of phenethyl isothiocyanate, a cruciferous vegetable-derived cancer chemopreventive agent. Mol Carcinog. 2006 Aug;45(8):605-12.
  • Journal article title with special characters
    • Guan M, Chen Y. Aberrant expression of ΔNp73 in benign and malignant tumours of the prostate: correlation with Gleason score. J Clin Pathol. 2005 Nov;58(11):1175-9.
    • may become
    • Guan M, Chen Y. Aberrant expression of DeltaNp73 in benign and malignant tumours of the prostate: correlation with Gleason score. J Clin Pathol. 2005 Nov;58(11):1175-9.
  • Journal article with type of article indicated
    • Gayer T, Hahn RW. Regulating mercury: what's at stake? [letter]. Science. 2005 Jul 8;309(5732):244-5.
  • Journal title consisting of a single word
    • Bryant BJ, Alperin JB, Indrikovs AJ. Blood bank on-call physician's experiences at a large university medical center. Transfusion. 2005 Jan;45(1):35-40.
  • Journal title in a character-based language
    • Itabashi M, Yoshida K, Kameoka S. [Sentinel node navigation surgery for colorectal cancer]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 2005 Apr;32(4):557-60. Japanese.
  • Journal title with an edition
    • Fisher ML, Balke CW, Freudenberger R. Therapeutic options in advanced heart failure. Hosp Pract (Off Ed). 1997 Dec 15;32(12):97-106.
  • Journal title with city of publication added after the title for clarification
    • Lillehei KO, Simon J, Gaspar L, Damek DM. Non-small-cell lung cancer with brain metastasis. Oncology (Williston Park). 2004 Dec;18(14):1725-8.
  • Journal article with year having a special number
    • Scott JD. The protease inhibitor drugs. Posit Aware. 2005 Winter;Spec No:16-9.
  • Journal article with year having a supplement
    • Draghici S, Khatri P, Shah A, Tainsky MA. Assessing the functional bias of commercial microarrays using the onto-compare database. Biotechniques. 2003 Mar;Suppl:55-61.
  • Journal article with year with supplement having a further division
    • Kenney JT Jr. The pharmacy director's view of the implications of dose escalation. Manag Care Interface. 2004;Suppl A:9-10.
  • Journal article with year having a named supplement
    • New measurement methods require reassessment of WHO criteria. Diagn Imaging (San Franc). 1998 Nov;Suppl Bone Mass:7.
  • Journal article with year having a part
    • Ophthalmology sourcebook & reference guide 1990. Ophthalmology. 1990 Sep;(Pt 2):1-145.
  • Journal article with season included in date
    • Swan T. Current challenges in hepatitis C. Res Initiat Treat Action. 2004 Fall;10(2):17-20.
  • Journal article with multiple years of publication
    • Spencer P, Zakaib G, Winter E. The risks of reuse: legal implications for hospitals of reusing single-use medical devices. Hosp Q. 2001-2002 Winter;5(2):68-70.
  • Journal article with multiple months of publication
    • Clark P, Lavielle P, Duarte C. Patient ratings of care at a rheumatology out-patient unit. Arch Med Res. 2004 Jan-Feb;35(1):82-6.
  • Journal article with multiple days of publication
    • Townsend E, Griffiths G, Rocker M, Winter R, Lewis M. Setting up a screening service for abdominal aortic aneurysm. Nurs Times. 2005 Feb 1-7;101(5):36-8.
  • Journal article volume with supplement
    • El Shehaby A, Ganz JC, Reda WA, Hafez A. Temporary symptomatic swelling of meningiomas following gamma knife surgery. Report of two cases. J Neurosurg. 2005 Jan;102 Suppl:293-6.
  • Journal article volume with supplement with further division
    • Tolosa E, Valldeoriola F. Mid-stage parkinsonism with mild motor fluctuations. Clin Neuropharmacol. 1994;17 Suppl 2:S19-31.
  • Journal article volume with supplement with part
    • Veselko M, Kastelec M. Inferior patellar pole avulsion fractures: osteosynthesis compared with pole resection. Surgical technique. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2005 Mar;87 Suppl 1 Pt 1:113-21.
  • Journal article volume with named supplement
    • Cattaneo M, Mannucci PM. Current status of non-transfusional haemostatic agents. Haematologica. 1999 Jun;84 Suppl EHA-4:120-3.
  • Journal article volume with part
    • Hoffer A, Youngren VR. Is free association still at the core of psychoanalysis? Int J Psychoanal. 2004 Dec;85(Pt 6):1489-92.
  • Journal article volume with part with supplement
    • Claridge KG, Francis PJ, Bates AK. Should second eye cataract surgery be rationed? Eye. 1995;9(Pt 6 Suppl):47-9.
  • Journal article volume with special number
    • Rico G, Kretschmer RR. The monocyte locomotion inhibitory factor (MLIF) produced by axenically grown Entamoeba histolytica fails to affect the locomotion and the respiratory burst of human eosinophils in vitro. Arch Med Res. 1997;28 Spec No:233-4.
  • Journal article with multiple volume numbers
    • Bakonyi G, Nagy P, Kadar I. Long-term effects of heavy metals and microelements on nematode assemblage. Toxicol Lett. 2003 Apr 11;140-141:391-401.
  • Journal article with volume without issue
    • Prokai-Tatrai K, Prokai L. Modifying peptide properties by prodrug design for enhanced transport into the CNS. Prog Drug Res. 2003;61:155-88.
  • Journal article with volume in a new series
    • Hughes JA, Brazeau GA. Genetically engineered vaccines. Am Pharm. 1995 Dec;NS35(12):9-10.
  • Journal article issue with name instead of number
    • Picardi E, Regina TM, Brennicke A, Quagliariello C. REDIdb: the RNA editing database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007 Jan;35(Database issue):D173-7.
  • Journal article issue with supplement
    • Crawford M, Mullan J, Vanderveen T. Technology and safe medication administration. J Infus Nurs. 2005 Mar-Apr;28(2 Suppl):37-41.
  • Journal article issue with supplement with further division
    • Montserrat E. Rituximab in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Semin Oncol. 2003 Feb;30(1 Suppl 2):34-9.
  • Journal article issue with supplement with part
    • Abstracts of the 41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO). May 13-17, 2005. Orlando, Florida, USA. J Clin Oncol. 2005 Jun 1;23(16 Suppl Pt 1):1s-1087s.
  • Journal article issue with named supplement
    • Leifer BP. Early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease: clinical and economic benefits. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2003 May;51(5 Suppl Dementia):S281-8.
  • Journal article issue with part
    • Menter A. Pharmacokinetics and safety of tazarotene. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2000 Aug;43(2 Pt 3):S31-5.
  • Journal article issue with part with supplement
    • Baxter CR. Foreword: comments on critical pathways. J Burn Care Rehabil. 1995;16(2 Pt 2 Suppl):189.
  • Journal article issue with special number
    • Muller H, Scott R, Weber W, Meier R. Colorectal cancer: lessons for genetic counselling and care for families. Clin Genet. 1994 Jul;46(1 Spec No):106-14.
  • Journal article with multiple issue numbers
    • Adams TB, Smith RL. Issues and challenges in the safety evaluation of food flavors. Toxicol Lett. 2004 Apr 1;149(1-3):209-13.
  • Journal article with an issue without a volume
    • Shul'gina GI, Ziablitseva EA. [Effect of the GABA derivative phenibut on learning]. Vestn Ross Akad Med Nauk. 2005;(2):35-40. Russian.
  • Journal article with no volume or issue
    • Schwartz-Cassell T. Feeding assistants: based on logic or way off base? Contemp Longterm Care. 2005 Jan:26-8.
  • Journal article with page numbers including a letter preceding the page numbers
    • Barrett CJ, Malpas SC. Problems, possibilities, and pitfalls in studying the arterial baroreflexes' influence over long-term control of blood pressure. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2005 Apr;288(4):R837-45.
  • Journal article with page numbers including a letter following the page numbers
    • Stern RA, Nevels CT, Shelhorse ME, Prohaska ML, Mason GA, Prange AJ Jr. The use of T3 to enhance the effects of ECT. Clin Neuropharmacol. 1992;15 Suppl 1 Pt A:387A-388A.
  • Journal article with roman numerals for page numbers (upper or lower case as found)
    • Weinstock MA. Public health messages regarding skin cancer. J Invest Dermatol. 2004 Dec;123(6):xvii-xix.
  • Journal article with discontinuous pagination
    • Fitzgerald-Bocarsly P. Natural interferon-alpha producing cells: the plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Biotechniques. 2002 Oct;Suppl:16-20, 22, 24-9.
  • Article on an insert, pages tipped in the issue
    • Loprinzi C. Follow-up care after breast cancer treatment. Mayo Clin Womens Healthsource. 2004 Sep;8(9):suppl 1-2.
  • Journal article with indication that additional text follows it
    • Hoffmann J, Lenhard A. Psychology has to deal with efferences too. J Mot Behav. 2004 Dec;36(4):384-5, 402-7; discussion 408-17.
  • Journal article with no page number provided
    • Jerger J. Broadening our horizons. J Am Acad Audiol. 1998 Feb;9(1):[preceding p. 1].
  • Journal article that is a retraction notice
    • Chen C, Li Q. A strict solution for the optimal superimposition of protein structures. Retraction. Acta Crystallogr A. 2004 Nov;60(Pt 6):640. Retraction of:Chen C, Li Q. Acta Crystallogr A. 2004 May;60(Pt 3):201-3.
  • Journal article retracted
    • Chen C, Li Q. A strict solution for the optimal superimposition of protein structures. Acta Crystallogr A. 2004 May;60(Pt 3):201-3. Retraction in: Chen C, Li Q. Acta Crystallogr A. 2004 Nov;60(Pt 6):640.
  • Journal article that is an erratum notice
    • Scuderi A, Letsou A. Amnioserosa is required for dorsal closure in Drosophila. Dev Dyn. 2005 May;233(1):249. Erratum for: Dev Dyn. 2005 Mar;232(3):791-800.
  • Journal article having an erratum
    • Scuderi A, Letsou A. Amnioserosa is required for dorsal closure in Drosophila. Dev Dyn. 2005 Mar;232(3):791-800. Erratum in: Dev Dyn. 2005 May;233(1):249.
  • Journal article with indication article published electronically before print
    • Walsh B, Steiner A, Pickering RM, Ward-Basu J. Economic evaluation of nurse led intermediate care versus standard care for post-acute medical patients: cost minimisation analysis of data from a randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2005 Mar 26;330(7493):699. Epub 2005 Mar 9.
  • Journal article with an indication it may be found in PubMed
    • Amalberti R, Auroy Y, Berwick D, Barach P. Five system barriers to achieving ultrasafe health care. Ann Intern Med. 2005 May 3;142(9):756-64. Cited in: PubMed; PMID 15867408.
  • Journal article with DOI provided
    • Bhutta ZA, Darmstadt GL, Hasan BS, Haws RA. Community-based interventions for improving perinatal and neonatal health outcomes in developing countries: a review of the evidence. Pediatrics. 2005 Feb;115(2 Suppl):519-617. doi:10.1542/peds.2004-1441.
  • Journal article in a microform
    • Moore W Jr, Lambert PD. The chromosomes of the Beagle dog. J Hered [microfilm]. 1963 Nov-Dec;54(6):273-6. 1 reel: black & white, negative, 35 mm.
  • Journal article accompanied by a videocassette, CD-ROM, or other visual medium
    • Dale RC, Church AJ, Surtees RA, Thompson EJ, Giovannoni G, Neville BG. Post-streptococcal autoimmune neuropsychiatric disease presenting as paroxysmal dystonic choreoathetosis. Mov Disord. 2002 Jul;17(4):817-20. Accompanied by: Videocassette available as vol. 17 videotape supplement 2; 51:03 min.
  • CD-ROM published as a supplement to an issue of a journal
    • 9th United European Gastroenterology Week. Amsterdam 2001. Abstracts of presentations [CD-ROM]. Gut. 2001 Nov;49(5 Suppl 3):[1 CD-ROM].
  • Other types of notes for journal articles
    • Harlow BL, Barbieri RL. Influence of education on risk of hysterectomy before age 45 years. Am J Epidemiol. 1999 Oct 15;150(8):843-7. Supported by a Public Health Service grant from the National Institute of Mental Health.
    • Schrag D, Chung KY, Flombaum C, Saltz L. Cetuximab therapy and symptomatic hypomagnesemia. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2005 Aug 17;97(16):1221-4. Paper originally presented at the Gastrointestinal Oncology Meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology Meeting, Hollywood, FL, January 29, 2005.
    • American Academy of Family Physicians. Information from your family doctor. What you should know about worrying too much. Am Fam Physician. 2006 Mar 15;73(6):1057-8. Patient education handout.
    • Flegel K. Biographies of healers [book review]. CMAJ. 2007 Jul 3;177(1):70. Review of: Bynum WF, Bynum H, editors. Dictionary of Medical Biography. Westport (CT): Greenwood Press; c2007.
    • Packman Z, Steen P. The nurses who simplified discharge planning [interview]. Nurs Times. 2007 Oct 16-22;103(42):20-1. Interview by Victoria Hoban.