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Citing biomedical documents - National Library of Medicine (NLM) style

Citing parts of books
National Library of Medicine (NLM) style

Patrias K. Citing medicine: the NLM style guide for authors, editors, and publishers [Internet]. 2nd ed. Wendling DL, technical editor. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2007 [updated 2009 Oct 21; cited 2010 Apr 30]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/citingmedicine

Components/elements listed in the order they should appear in a reference: (R) = required, (O) = optional

Book (R) | Name and Number/Letter (R) | Title (R) | Location (Pagination) (R) | Language (R)

  • Standard chapter in a book
    • Reed JG, Baxter PM. Library use: handbook for psychology. 3rd ed. Washington: American Psychological Association; c2003. Chapter 2, Selecting and defining the topic; p. 11-25.
  • Chapter in a book with optional full first names of authors
    • Speroff, Leon; Fritz, Marc A. Clinical gynecologic endocrinology and infertility. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2005. Chapter 29, Endometriosis; p. 1103-33.
  • Standard figure in a book with number
    • Thibodeau GA, Patton KT. Anatomy & physiology. 5th ed. St. Louis (MO): Mosby; c2003. Figure 6-13, Onycholysis; p. 179.
  • Figure in a book with a letter
    • Wood AF, Smith MJ. Online communication: linking technology, identity, and culture. Mahwah (NJ): Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; c2001. Figure A.1, Linear versus hypertext; p. 204.
  • Figure in a book without a number or letter
    • Eroschenko VP. Di Fiore's atlas of histology with functional correlations. 10th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2005. Overview figure, Comparison (transverse sections) of a muscular artery, large vein, and the three types of capillaries; p. 152.
  • Figure in a book without a number with name implied
    • American health: demographics and spending of health care consumers. Ithaca (NY): New Strategist Publications, Inc.; c2005. [Figure], Percent distribution of visits to emergency rooms by urgency of problem, 2002; p. 383.
  • Figure in a book with a constructed title
    • Grundy F, Grundy PF. Community health and social services: an introduction for medical undergraduates, health visitors, social workers and midwives. London: H.K. Lewis & Co. Ltd.; 1974. Figure 4, [Map of County Councils and District Councils in Wales]; p. 24.
  • Standard table in a book with a number
    • Larone DH. Medically important fungi: a guide to identification. 4th ed. Washington: ASM Press; c2002. Table 15, Characteristics of some of the "black yeasts"; p. 200.
  • Table in a book with a letter
    • Nielsen-Bohlman L, Panzer AM, Kindig DA, editors. Health literacy: a prescription to end confusion. Washington: National Academies Press; c2004. Table B-7, Percentage of adult population groups with literacy skills at NALS levels 1 or 2; p. 294.
  • Table in a book without a number or letter
    • Pennington JA, Douglas JS. Bowes & Church's food values of portions commonly used. 18th ed. Baltimore (MD): Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2005. Supplementary tables: Fatty acids; p. 331-7.
  • Table in a book without a number or letter with name implied
    • Mosley AD, Romaine DS. The encyclopedia of Parkinson's disease. New York: Facts on File; c2004. [Table], Hoehn and Yahr stage scale for Parkinson's disease; p. 158.
  • Standard appendix in a book with a number
    • Finberg L, Kravath RE, Hellerstein S, Saenger P. Water and electrolytes in pediatrics: physiology, pathology, and treatment. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company; c1993. Appendix 2, Time line; p. 267-70.
  • Appendix in a book with a letter
    • Zuber TJ, Mayeaux EJ. Atlas of primary care procedures. Jackelow WB, Gast P, Duprey LP, illustrators. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2004. Appendix H, Skin preparation recommendations; p. 596.
  • Appendix in a book without a number or letter
    • Moore KL, Persaud TV. The developing human: clinically oriented embryology. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; c2003. Appendix, Timetable of human prenatal development 1 to 6 weeks; p. 516-7.
  • Appendix in a book with name implied
    • University of Cape Town, Medical School, Department of Pharmacology. South African medicines formulary. 4th ed. Pinelands (South Africa): Medical Association of South Africa; c1997. [Appendix], Adverse drug event and product quality problem report form; [following p. 510.].
  • Appendix in a book with a constructed title
    • Woelfel JB, Scheid RC. Dental anatomy: its relevance to dentistry. 6th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2002. Appendix, [Drawings of permanent and primary teeth which are labeled (with letters) to highlight features of each tooth]; Appendix page 1-10.
  • Other named parts in a book with numbers
    • Ettinger SJ, Feldman EC. Textbook of veterinary medicine: diseases of the dog and cat. 6th ed. St. Louis (MO): Elsevier Saunders; c2005. Section 7, Dietary considerations of systemic problems; p. 553-98.
    • Berman A, Snyder S, Kozier B, Erb G. Kozier and Erb's techniques in clinical nursing. 5th ed. Upper Saddle River (NJ): Prentice Hall; c2002. Unit 3, Mobility and safety; p. 173-257.
    • Thibodeau GA, Patton KT. Anatomy & physiology. 5th ed. St. Louis (MO): Mosby; c2003. Box 10-1, Sports and fitness: assessing muscle strength; p. 283.
    • Timby BK. Fundamental skills and concepts in patient care. 8th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2005. Skill 16-4, Giving oral care to unconscious patients; p. 332-4.
  • Other named parts in a book with letters
    • Katz DL. Nutrition in clinical practice: a comprehensive, evidence-based manual for the practitioner. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2001. Part B, Dietary management in clinical practice: diet and exercise; p. 35-194.
  • Other parts in a book with numbers with name implied
    • Chapman CB. Dartmouth medical school: the first 100 years. Hanover (NH): University Press of New England; 1973. [Photograph] 8, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Professor of Anatomy and Physiology from 1838 to 1841; p. 31.
    • Gillmer M, Gordon D, Sever P, Steer P. 100 cases for students of medicine: medicine, surgery, obstetrics and gynaecology. Edinburgh (Scotland): Churchill Livingstone; 1979. [Case] 26, [Two patients were admitted complaining of difficulty in swallowing]; p. 71-2.
  • Other parts in a book without numbers or letters with name implied
    • American Medical Association. American Medical Association family medical guide. 4th ed., completely rev. and updated. Hoboken (NJ): John Wiley & Sons; c2004. [Chart], Impaired memory: difficulty remembering specific facts, events, or periods of time; p. 236.
  • Unnamed parts in a book without numbers or letters
    • Riffenburgh RH. Statistics in medicine. 2nd ed. Amsterdam (Netherlands): Elsevier Academic Press; c2006. Data and calculations required for a life table; p. 146.
  • Dictionary entry, unsigned
    • Dorland's illustrated medical dictionary. 30th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; c2003. Encephalomalacia; p. 609.
  • Encyclopedia article, unsigned
    • Turkington C, Tzeel A. The encyclopedia of children's health and wellness. New York: Facts on File, Inc.; c2004. Papilloma virus, human (HPV); p. 381-3.
  • Part in a book with Greek letters or other special symbols in the title
    • The Merck index: an encyclopedia of chemicals, drugs, and biologicals. 13th ed. Whitehouse Station (NJ): Merck & Co., Inc.; 2001. α-Bisabolol; p. 212.
    • or
    • The Merck index: an encyclopedia of chemicals, drugs, and biologicals. 13th ed. Whitehouse Station (NJ): Merck & Co., Inc.; 2001. alpha-Bisabolol; p. 212.
  • Part in a book with superscripts or subscripts in the title
    • Kahl G. The dictionary of gene technology: genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics. 3rd ed. Weinheim (Germany): Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; c2004. Melting temperature (Tm, tm, t1/2m; melting point); p. 639-40.
    • or
    • Kahl G. The dictionary of gene technology: genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics. 3rd ed. Weinheim (Germany): Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; c2004. Melting temperature (T(m), t(m), t(1/2m); melting point); p. 639.
  • Part in a book with unusual pagination or no pagination
    • Owens RE. Language disorders: a functional approach to assessment and intervention. 4th ed. Boston: Pearson; c2004. Appendix D, Language tests for children with LEP and different dialects; p. A15-25.
    • Shingleton HM, Orr JW Jr. Cancer of the cervix. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott Company; c1995. Color figure 7-7, Excised uterus with wide vaginal cuff and parauterine tissues; [preceding p. 1].
    • University of Cape Town, Medical School, Department of Pharmacology. South African medicines formulary. 4th ed. Pinelands (South Africa): Medical Association of South Africa; c1997. [Appendix], Adverse drug event and product quality problem report form; [following p. 510].
    • Tappan FM, Benjamin PJ. Tappan's handbook of healing massage techniques: classic, holistic, and emerging methods. 4th ed. Upper Saddle River (NJ): Pearson/Prentice Hall; c2005. [Figure], Energy channels of traditional Asian medicine; [inside back cover and facing page].
    • Woelfel JB, Scheid RC. Dental anatomy: its relevance to dentistry. 6th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2002. Appendix, [Drawings of permanent and primary teeth which are labeled (with letters) to highlight features of each tooth]; Appendix page 1-10.
  • Parts of non-English books
    • Tischendorf FW. Blickdiagnostik: Compactatlas der klinischen Inspektion und Differenzialdiagnostik. 3., vollstandig uberarbeitete und erweiterte Auflage. Stuttgart (Germany): Schattauer; c2005. Abbildung 15, β-Thalassaemia minor; p. 9. German.
    • Fleta Zaragozano J. Enfremedades importadas en pediatria. Zaragoza (Spain): Prensas Universitarias de Zaragoza; 2001. Tabla 10, Etiologia de la esplenomegalia secundaria a procesos infecciosos; p. 109. Spanish.
    • Bercherie P. Lacan. Paris: L'Harmattan; 2004. Chapitre 4, Le virage de la jouissance; p. 91-102. French.
    • Corea Fonseca E. Historia de la medicina en Nicaragua. Managua (Nicaragua): [publisher unknown]; 2000 Dec. Anexo, Creacion de las especialidades medicas; p. 275-81. Spanish.
    • Basdekis JC. L'alimentation des personnes agees: et la prevention de la denutrition. Paris: ESTEM; c2004. Tableau 5, Principaux marqueurs biologiques de l'etat nutritionnel; p. 33. French.
    • with translation
    • Basdekis JC. L'alimentation des personnes agees: et la prevention de la denutrition [Nutrition in older people: and the prevention of malnutrition]. Paris: ESTEM; c2004. Tableau 5, Principaux marqueurs biologiques de l'etat nutritionnel [Table 5, Principal biological markers of nutritional state]; p. 33. French.