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Citing biomedical documents - National Library of Medicine (NLM) style

Citing parts of journal articles
National Library of Medicine (NLM) style

Patrias K. Citing medicine: the NLM style guide for authors, editors, and publishers [Internet]. 2nd ed. Wendling DL, technical editor. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2007 [updated 2009 Oct 21; cited 2010 Apr 30]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/citingmedicine

Components/elements listed in the order they should appear in a reference: (R) = required, (O) = optional

Journal Article (R) | Name and Number/Letter (R) | Title (R) | Location (Pagination) (R)

  • Standard numbered/lettered table in a journal article
    • Diaz-Cruz ES, Shapiro CL, Brueggemeier RW. Cyclooxygenase inhibitors suppress aromatase expression and activity in breast cancer cells. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005 May;90(5):2563-70. Table 2, Aromatase activity and expression in cell lines; p. 2565.
  • Unnumbered/unlettered table in a journal article
    • Mackey KM, Sparling JW. Experiences of older women with cancer receiving hospice care: significance for physical therapy. Phys Ther. 2000 May;80(5):459-68. Table, Informant demographics and characteristics; p. 461.
  • Unnamed table in a journal article
    • Krishnamurthi V, Streem SB. Long-term radiographic and functional outcome of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy induced perirenal hematomas. J Urol. 1995 Nov;154(5):1673-5. [Table], Radiographic and functional outcome of ESWL related perirenal hematomas; p. 1674.
  • Unnumbered/unlettered and untitled table in a journal article
    • Hartz AJ, Rupley DC, Rimm AA. The association of girth measurements with disease in 32,856 women. Am J Epidemiol. 1984 Jan;119(1):71-80. Table, [Waist-hip ratio ranges and the sample sizes for women aged 40 to 59]; p. 72.
  • Standard numbered/lettered figure in a journal article
    • Mitchell GF, Pfeffer MA. Evaluation and management of patients with uncontrolled systolic hypertension: is another new paradigm really needed? Am Heart J. 2005 May;149(5):776-84. Figure 3, Regional pressure wave forms in the normal arterial system; p. 780.
  • Unnumbered/unlettered figure in a journal article
    • Glascoe FP, Martin ED, Humphrey S. A comparative review of developmental screening tests. Pediatrics. 1990 Oct;86(4):547-54. Figure, Developmental screening tests; p. 549.
  • Unnamed figure in a journal article
    • Lindup WE, Orme MC. Clinical pharmacology: plasma protein binding of drugs. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1981 Jan 17;282(6259):212-4. [Figure], Protein binding and drug disposition; p. 212.
  • Unnumbered/unlettered and untitled figure in a journal article
    • Roth S, Semjonow A, Waldner M, Hertle L. Risk of bowel dysfunction with diarrhea after continent urinary diversion with ileal and ileocecal segments. J Urol. 1995 Nov;154(5):1696-9. [Figure, Resection of long ileal or ileocecal segments disturbs enterohepatic bile acid circulation]; p. 1697.
  • Standard numbered/lettered appendix in a journal article
    • House MG, Choti MA. Palliative therapy for pancreatic/biliary cancer. Surg Clin N Am. 2005 Apr;85(2):359-71. Appendix 1, Principles guiding care at the end of life; p. 389-90.
  • Unnumbered/unlettered appendix in a journal article
    • Sorkin JD, Muller DC, Andres R. Longitudinal change in height of men and women: implications for interpretation of the body mass index: the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Am J Epidemiol. 1999 Nov 1;150(9):969-77. Appendix, Equations, obtained from cross-sectional analysis, relating height to age; p. 976-7.
  • Unnumbered/unlettered and untitled appendix in a journal article
    • Lee KF. Palliative care: good legal defense. Surg Clin North Am. 2005 Apr;85(2):287-302, vii. Appendix, [Excerpts from "Prescription Pain Medications: Frequently Asked Questions and Answers for Health Care Professionals"]; p. 296-301.
  • Numbered section in a journal article
    • Wakita A, Nitta M, Mitomo Y, Takahashi M, Tanaka M, Kaneda T. Cell proliferation detected by DNA polymerase alpha in acute leukemias. Cancer Detect Prev. 1997;21(1):55-61. Section 2A, Cell preparation; p. 55-6.
  • Unnumbered/unlettered section in a journal article
    • Martin F, Linden T, Katschinski DM, Oehme F, Flamme I, Mukhopadhyay CK, Eckhardt K, Troger J, Barth S, Camenisch G, Wenger RH. Copper-dependent activation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1: implications for ceruloplasmin regulation. Blood. 2005 Jun 15;105(12):4613-9. Induction of ceruloplasm mRNA by hypoxoa and CU2+; p. 4616-7.
  • Miscellaneous numbered parts in journal articles
    • Pratt HD, Patel DR, Greydanus DE. Behavioral aspects of children's sports. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2003 Aug;50(4):879-99, ix. Box 7, Indicators of potential problems an athlete may experience; p. 892-3.
    • Morales CA, Layton ME, Shair MD. Synthesis of (-)-longithorone A: using organic synthesis to probe a proposed biosynthesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Aug 17;101(33):12036-41. Scheme 7, Unsuccessful model intermolecular Diels-Alder reaction of 4 with 47; p. 12039.
    • Fong A, Garcia E, Gwynn L, Lisanti MP, Fazzari MJ, Li M. Expression of caveolin-1 and caveolin-2 in urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder correlates with tumor grade and squamous differentiation. Am J Clin Pathol. 2003 Jul;120(1):93-100. Image 4, Immunohistochemical staining of a urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation with anti-caveolin-1; p. 98.
  • Parts of journal articles not in English
    • Balogou AA, Grunitzky EK, Kpade C, Belo M. [Non-traumatic paraplegia at the campus teaching hospital of Lome. Report of 243 cases]. Tunis Med. 2002 Jan;80(1):33-6. [Table 2, Etiology]; p. 35. French.
  • Parts of journal articles not in English with original or romanized language included
    • Solignac M. COART France rapport 2003 sur les nouvelles donnees socio-economiques de l'arthrose en France [COART France 2003 report on new socioeconomic data on osteoarthritis in France]. Presse Med. 2004 May 22;33(9 Pt 2):S4-6. Figure, Repartition des consultations pour arthrose en France en 2002 [Figure, Distribution of consultations for osteoarthritis in France in 2002]; p. S5. French.
  • Parts of journals in two equal languages
    • Gruppo di Studio SIAARTI Sicurezza in Anestesia e Terapia Intensiva [SIAARTI Study Group for Safety in Anesthesia and Intensive Care]. Raccomandazioni per il trasporto inter ed intra ospedaliero del paziente critico = Recommendations on the transport of critically ill patients. Minerva Anestesiol. 2006 Oct;72(10):XXXVII-LVII. Tabella 3, Scheda di trasporto; p. XLIV-XLV = Table 3, Record of transport; p. LVI-LVII. Italian, English.