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Gynecological pathology and cytopathology / Pathologie et cytopathologie gynécologique

Pierre Vassilakos

Pierre Vassilakos

MD, pathologist
Former Director of the Center for Cytology, the Swiss School of Cytology, the Geneva Tumor Registry and the Division of Gynecological Pathology, Department of Health and University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland
Former lecturer at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva
Responsible for Gynecological Pathology and Cytopathology at the Geneva Foundation for Medical Education and Research

Pierre Vassilakos, MD, is former Director of the Center for Cytology, the Swiss School of Cytology, the Geneva Tumor Registry and the Division of Gynecological Pathology, Department of Health and University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland.
As Lecturer of the Geneva Medical School he was teaching residents and medical students and supervised medical theses.
Author of a book and more than 100 publications and coprincipal investigator for the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Dr. Vassilakos is often invited for lectures in national and international meetings and is frequently contacted by the media regarding cervical cancer screening.
The focus of his studies has been the epidemiology and natural history of cervical cancer as well the introduction of new technologies in cervical cancer screening in developed and developing countries.
Dr Vassilakos is currently consultant Pathologist. He is also an investigator in clinical trials and in charge of training and research in Gynecological Pathology and Cytopathology at the Geneva Foundation for Medical Education and Research.

Publications indexed in PubMed

  • Benski A-C, Viviano M, Jinoro J, Alec M, Catarino R, Herniainasolo J, Vassilakos P, Petignat P. HPV self-testing for primary cervical cancer screening in Madagascar: VIA/VILI triage compliance in HPV-positive women. PLoS One. 2019;14(8):e0220632. https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0220632
  • Delavy M, Heriniainasolo JL, Catarino R, Viviano M, Petignat P, Vassilakos P. Case Study: Schistosomiasis of the Endocervical Canal, A Rarely Reported Localization. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2019 Aug 19;Publish Ahead of Print. https://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PGP.0000000000000610
  • Vassilakos P, Poncet A, Catarino R, Viviano M, Petignat P, Combescure C. Cost-effectiveness evaluation of HPV self-testing offered to non-attendees in cervical cancer screening in Switzerland. Gynecol Oncol. 2019 Feb 1. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2019.01.021
  • Negulescu R-A, Catarino R, De Vuyst H, Undurraga-Malinverno M, Meyer-Hamme U, Alec M, Campana A, Vassilakos P, Petignat P. Web-based instrument to assess skills in visual inspection of the cervix among healthcare providers. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2016 Jul;134(1):107-13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijgo.2015.11.024
  • Benski AC, Stancanelli G, Scaringella S, Herinainasolo JL, Jinoro J, Vassilakos P, Petignat P, Schmidt NC. Usability and feasibility of a mobile health system to provide comprehensive antenatal care in low-income countries: PANDA mHealth pilot study in Madagascar. J Telemed Telecare. 2016 Jun 30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1357633X16653540
  • Catarino R, Vassilakos P, Jinoro J, Broquet C, Benski A-C, Meyer-Hamme U, Petignat P. Human papillomavirus prevalence and type-specific distribution of high- and low-risk genotypes among Malagasy women living in urban and rural areas. Cancer Epidemiol. 2016 Jun;42:159-66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canep.2016.04.013
  • Catarino RR, Vassilakos PP, Royannez-Drevard II, Guillot CC, Alzuphar SS, Fehlmann AA, Meyer-Hamme UU, Petignat PP. Barriers to Cervical Cancer Screening in Geneva (DEPIST Study). J Low Genit Tract Dis. 2016 Apr;20(2):135-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/LGT.0000000000000173
  • Germann D, Catarino R, Saiji E, Daikeler T, Petignat P, Vassilakos P. Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 associated with Behçet’s disease. BMC Res Notes. 2016 Mar 17;9:172. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13104-016-1985-7
  • Gallay C, Miranda E, Schaefer S, Catarino R, Jacot-Guillarmod M, Menoud P-A, Guerry F, Achtari C, Sahli R, Vassilakos P, Petignat P. Human papillomavirus (HPV) contamination of gynaecological equipment. Sex Transm Infect. 2016 Feb;92(1):19-23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/sextrans-2014-051977
  • Catarino R, Vassilakos P, Tebeu P-M, Schäfer S, Bongoe A, Petignat P. Risk factors associated with human papillomavirus prevalence and cervical neoplasia among Cameroonian women. Cancer Epidemiol. 2016 Feb;40:60-6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canep.2015.11.008
  • Vassilakos P, Catarino R, Bougel S, Munoz M, Benski C, Meyer-Hamme U, Jinoro J, Heriniainasolo JL, Petignat P. Use of swabs for dry collection of self-samples to detect human papillomavirus among Malagasy women. Infect Agents Cancer. 2016;11:13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13027-016-0059-8
  • Catarino R, Petignat P, Dongui G, Vassilakos P. Cervical cancer screening in developing countries at a crossroad: Emerging technologies and policy choices. World J Clin Oncol. 2015 Dec 10;6(6):281-90. http://dx.doi.org/10.5306/wjco.v6.i6.281
  • Ricard-Gauthier D, Wisniak A, Catarino R, van Rossum AF, Meyer-Hamme U, Negulescu R, Scaringella S, Jinoro J, Vassilakos P, Petignat P. Use of Smartphones as Adjuvant Tools for Cervical Cancer Screening in Low-Resource Settings. J Low Genit Tract Dis. 2015 Oct;19(4):295-300. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/LGT.0000000000000136
  • Pirek D, Petignat P, Vassilakos P, Gourmaud J, Pache J-C, Rubbia-Brandt L, Sando Z, McKee TA, Ho L. Human papillomavirus genotype distribution among Cameroonian women with invasive cervical cancer: a retrospective study. Sex Transm Infect. 2015 Sep;91(6):440-4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/sextrans-2014-051642
  • Broquet C, Triboullier D, Untiet S, Schafer S, Petignat P, Vassilakos P. Acceptability of self-collected vaginal samples for HPV testing in an urban and rural population of Madagascar. Afr Health Sci. 2015 Sep;15(3):755-61. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ahs.v15i3.8
  • Fokom-Domgue J, Combescure C, Fokom-Defo V, Tebeu PM, Vassilakos P, Kengne AP, Petignat P. Performance of alternative strategies for primary cervical cancer screening in sub-Saharan Africa: systematic review and meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy studies. BMJ. 2015 Jul 3;351:h3084.
  • Bigoni J, Gundar M, Tebeu P-M, Bongoe A, Schäfer S, Fokom-Domgue J, Catarino R, Tincho EF, Bougel S, Vassilakos P, Petignat P. Cervical cancer screening in sub-Saharan Africa: a randomized trial of VIA versus cytology for triage of HPV-positive women. Int J Cancer. 2015 Jul 1;137(1):127-34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.29353
  • Tebeu P-M, Fokom-Domgue J, Crofts V, Flahaut E, Catarino R, Untiet S, Vassilakos P, Petignat P. Effectiveness of a two-stage strategy with HPV testing followed by visual inspection with acetic acid for cervical cancer screening in a low-income setting. Int J Cancer. 2015 Mar 15;136(6):E743-750. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.29250
  • Catarino R, Vassilakos P, Stadali-Ullrich H, Royannez-Drevard I, Guillot C, Petignat P. Feasibility of at-home self-sampling for HPV testing as an appropriate screening strategy for nonparticipants in Switzerland: preliminary results of the DEPIST study. J Low Genit Tract Dis. 2015 Jan;19(1):27-34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/LGT.0000000000000051
  • Vassilakos P, Catarino R, Frey Tirri B, Petignat P. Cervical cancer screening in Switzerland: time to rethink the guidelines. Swiss Med Wkly. 2015;145:w14112. http://dx.doi.org/10.4414/smw.2015.14112
  • Crofts V, Flahault E, Tebeu P-M, Untiet S, Fosso GK, Boulvain M, Vassilakos P, Petignat P. Education efforts may contribute to wider acceptance of human papillomavirus self-sampling. Int J Womens Health. 2015;7:149-54. http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJWH.S56307
  • Catarino R, Vassilakos P, Scaringella S, Undurraga-Malinverno M, Meyer-Hamme U, Ricard-Gauthier D, Matute JC, Petignat P. Smartphone Use for Cervical Cancer Screening in Low-Resource Countries: A Pilot Study Conducted in Madagascar. PLoS ONE. 2015;10(7):e0134309. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134309
  • Catarino R, Vassilakos P, Bilancioni A, Vanden Eynde M, Meyer-Hamme U, Menoud P-A, Guerry F, Petignat P. Randomized Comparison of Two Vaginal Self-Sampling Methods for Human Papillomavirus Detection: Dry Swab versus FTA Cartridge. PLoS ONE. 2015;10(12):e0143644. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143644
  • Untiet S, Vassilakos P, McCarey C, Tebeu P-M, Kengne-Fosso G, Menoud P-A, Boulvain M, Navarria I, Petignat P. HPV self-sampling as primary screening test in sub-Saharan Africa: implication for a triaging strategy. Int J Cancer. 2014 Oct 15;135(8):1911-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.28834
  • Fokom-Domgue J, Vassilakos P, Petignat P. Is screen-and-treat approach suited for screening and management of precancerous cervical lesions in Sub-Saharan Africa? Prev Med. 2014 Aug;65:138-40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2014.05.014
  • Vassilakos P, Catarino R, Boulvain M, Petignat P. Controversies in the mammography screening programme in Switzerland. Swiss Med Wkly. 2014;144:w13969. http://dx.doi.org/10.4414/smw.2014.13969
  • Sossauer G, Zbinden M, Tebeu P-M, Fosso GK, Untiet S, Vassilakos P, Petignat P. Impact of an educational intervention on women’s knowledge and acceptability of human papillomavirus self-sampling: a randomized controlled trial in Cameroon. PLoS ONE. 2014;9(10):e109788. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0109788
  • Eperon I, Vassilakos P, Navarria I, Menoud P-A, Gauthier A, Pache J-C, Boulvain M, Untiet S, Petignat P. Randomized comparison of vaginal self-sampling by standard vs. dry swabs for human papillomavirus testing. BMC Cancer. 2013 Jul 22;13:353. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2407-13-353
  • Berner A, Hassel SB, Tebeu P-M, Untiet S, Kengne-Fosso G, Navarria I, Boulvain M, Vassilakos P, Petignat P. Human papillomavirus self-sampling in Cameroon: women’s uncertainties over the reliability of the method are barriers to acceptance. J Low Genit Tract Dis. 2013 Jul;17(3):235-41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/LGT.0b013e31826b7b51
  • Vassilakos P, Untiet S, Petignat P. [Cervical cancer prevention in Switzerland: the challenges of the vaccine era]. Rev Med Suisse. 2012 Oct 24;8(359):2015-6, 2018-20.
  • Petignat P, Untiet S, Vassilakos P. How to improve cervical cancer screening in Switzerland? Swiss Med Wkly. 2012 Aug 13;142:w13663. http://dx.doi.org/10.4414/smw.2012.13663
  • Petignat P, Vassilakos P. Is it time to introduce HPV self-sampling for primary cervical cancer screening? J Natl Cancer Inst. 2012 Feb 8;104(3):166-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djr544
  • Cornier N, Petrova E, Cavailler P, Dentcheva R, Terris-Prestholt F, Janin A, Ninet B, Anguenot J-L, Vassilakos P, Gerbase A, Mayaud P. Optimising the management of vaginal discharge syndrome in Bulgaria: cost effectiveness of four clinical algorithms with risk assessment. Sex Transm Infect. 2010 Aug;86(4):303-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/sti.2009.040832
  • Petignat P, Faltin D, Goffin F, Billieux M-H, Stucki D, Sporri S, Vassilakos P. Age-related performance of human papillomavirus testing used as an adjunct to cytology for cervical carcinoma screening in a population with a low incidence of cervical carcinoma. Cancer. 2005 Jun 25;105(3):126-32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.21060
  • Billieux M-H, Petignat P, Fior A, Mhawech P, Blouin J-L, Dahoun S, Vassilakos P. Pre-eclampsia and peripartum cardiomyopathy in molar pregnancy: clinical implication for maternally imprinted genes. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2004 Apr;23(4):398-401. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/uog.1015
  • Petignat P, Boulvain M, Vassilakos P. Human chorionic gonadotropin follow-up in patients with molar pregnancy: a time for reevaluation. Obstet Gynecol. 2003 Sep;102(3):642-643; author reply 643.
  • Petignat P, Billieux M-H, Blouin J-L, Dahoun S, Vassilakos P. Is genetic analysis useful in the routine management of hydatidiform mole? Hum Reprod. 2003 Feb;18(2):243-9.
  • Robyr R, Nazeer S, Vassilakos P, Matute JC, Sando Z, Halle G, Mbakop A, Campana A. Feasibility of cytology-based cervical cancer screening in rural Cameroon. Acta Cytol. 2002 Dec;46(6):1110-6.
  • Petignat P, Vassilakos P, Campana A. Are fertility drugs a risk factor for persistent trophoblastic tumour? Hum Reprod. 2002 Jun;17(6):1610-5.
  • Vassilakos P, Carrel S, Petignat P, Boulvain M, Campana A. Use of automated primary screening on liquid-based, thin-layer preparations. Acta Cytol. 2002 Apr;46(2):291-5.
  • Vassilakos P, Petignat P, Boulvain M, Campana A. Primary screening for cervical cancer precursors by the combined use of liquid-based cytology, computer-assisted cytology and HPV DNA testing. Br J Cancer. 2002 Feb 1;86(3):382-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.bjc.6600073
  • Lüdicke F, Stalberg A, Vassilakos P, Major AL, Campana A. High- and intermediate-risk human papillomavirus infection in sexually active adolescent females. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2001 Nov;14(4):171-4.
  • Anguenot JL, de Marval F, Vassilakos P, Auckenthaler R, Ibéchéole V, Campana A. Combined screening for Chlamydia trachomatis and squamous intra-epithelial lesions using a single liquid-based cervical sample. Hum Reprod. 2001 Oct;16(10):2206-10.
  • Vassilakos P, Schwartz D, de Marval F, Yousfi L, Broquet G, Mathez-Loic F, Campana A, Major A. Biopsy-based comparison of liquid-based, thin-layer preparations to conventional Pap smears. J Reprod Med. 2000 Jan;45(1):11-6.
  • Vassilakos P. Management of suboptimal cytologic smears: persistent inflammatory smears. Acta Cytol. 1998 Dec;42(6):1481.
  • Vassilakos P, de Marval F, Muñoz M, Broquet G, Campana A. Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA assay as an adjunct to liquid-based Pap test in the diagnostic triage of women with an abnormal Pap smear. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 1998 Apr;61(1):45-50.
  • Vassilakos P, Griffin S, Megevand E, Campana A. CytoRich liquid-based cervical cytologic test. Screening results in a routine cytopathology service. Acta Cytol. 1998 Feb;42(1):198-202.
  • Richart RM, Masood S, Syrjänen KJ, Vassilakos P, Kaufman RH, Meisels A, Olszewski WT, Sakamoto A, Stoler MH, Vooijs GP, Wilbur DC. Human papillomavirus. International Academy of Cytology Task Force summary. Diagnostic Cytology Towards the 21st Century: An International Expert Conference and Tutorial. Acta Cytol. 1998 Feb;42(1):50-8.
  • Vassilakos P, de Marval F, Muñoz M. [Screening of cervical cancer, false negative smears]. Rev Med Suisse Romande. 1998 Jan;118(1):97.
  • Vassilakos P, De Marval F, Muñoz M. [Cervical cancer screening. False negative smears]. Rev Med Suisse Romande. 1997 Aug;117(8):597-601.
  • Vassilakos P, Cossali D, Albe X, Alonso L, Hohener R, Puget E. Efficacy of monolayer preparations for cervical cytology: emphasis on suboptimal specimens. Acta Cytol. 1996 Jun;40(3):496-500.
  • Dieterich B, Albe X, Vassilakos P, Wieser S, Friedrich R, Krauer F. The prognostic value of DNA ploidy and S-phase estimate in primary breast cancer: a prospective study. Int J Cancer. 1995 Sep 27;63(1):49-54.
  • Remadi S, Lotfi C, Finci V, Ismail A, Rogiano D, Vassilakos P, Seemayer TA. Penicillium marneffei infection in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. A report of two cases. Acta Cytol. 1995 Aug;39(4):798-802.
  • Remadi S, Finci V, Ismail A, Zacharie S, Vassilakos P. Herpetic endometritis after pregnancy. Pathol Res Pract. 1995 Feb;191(1):31-4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0344-0338(11)80919-2
  • Remadi S, Ismail A, Karpuz V, Finci V, Zacharie S, Vassilakos P. [Cellular (juvenile) fibroadenoma of the breast. A clinico-pathologic and immunohistochemical study of 7 cases]. Ann Pathol. 1994;14(6):392-7.
  • Bischof P, Redard M, Gindre P, Vassilakos P, Campana A. Localization of alpha 2, alpha 5 and alpha 6 integrin subunits in human endometrium, decidua and trophoblast. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 1993 Oct 29;51(3):217-26.
  • Vassilakos P, Schweblin JD, Albe X. A new syringe for fine needle aspiration biopsy. Acta Cytol. 1993 Feb;37(1):29-33.
  • Vassilakos P. [Intraepithelial squamous lesions of the cervix and vulva. Necessity of a common language]. Ann Pathol. 1992;12(1):48-55.
  • Vassilakos P, Albe X. DNA ploidy status in the diagnosis and prognosis of cancer. Bull Assoc Anat (Nancy). 1991 Jun;75(229):109-15.
  • Weintraub J, Redard M, Wenger D, Vassilakos P. The application of immunocytochemical techniques to routinely-fixed and stained cytologic specimens. An aid in the differential diagnosis of undifferentiated malignant neoplasms. Pathol Res Pract. 1990 Oct;186(5):658-65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0344-0338(11)80230-X
  • Albe X, Vassilakos P, Helfer-Guarnori K, Givel JC, de Quay N, Suardet L, Eliason JF, Odartchenko N. Independent prognostic value of ploidy in colorectal cancer. A prospective study using image cytometry. Cancer. 1990 Sep 15;66(6):1168-75.
  • Weintraub J, Bischof P, Tseng L, Redard M, Vassilakos P. CA 125 is an excretory product of human endometrial glands. Biol Reprod. 1990 Apr;42(4):721-6.
  • Korbi S, Ansermet-Ruiz F, Weintraub J, Bouzakoura C, Vassilakos P. [Melanoma of the vagina. Apropos of a case and review of the literature]. Arch Anat Cytol Pathol. 1990;38(1-2):39-42.
  • Bouchardy C, Fioretta G, Raymond L, Vassilakos P. Age differentials in trends of uterine cervical cancer incidence from 1970 to 1987 in Geneva. Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique. 1990;38(3):261-2.
  • de Quay N, Cuttat JF, Givel JC, Tevaearai H, Chapuis G, Albe X, Vassilakos P. [Synchronous hepatic metastases of colorectal adenocarcinoma: what is the course? Apropos of 36 cases]. Helv Chir Acta. 1989 Dec;56(4):447-54.
  • Givel JC, de Quay N, Albe X, Vassilakos P. [Prognostic value of DNA ploidy of colorectal tumor cells]. Helv Chir Acta. 1989 Jan;55(5):679-83.
  • Redard M, Vassilakos P, Weintraub J. A simple method for estrogen receptor antigen preservation in cytologic specimens containing breast carcinoma cells. Diagn Cytopathol. 1989;5(2):188-93.
  • Givel JC, Matter M, Couson F, Eliason JF, Albe X, Vassilakos P, Odartchenko N. [Colorectal cancer: research on new biologic methods of therapeutic and prognostic value]. Helv Chir Acta. 1988 Jun;55(1-2):71-7.
  • Weintraub J, Weintraub D, Redard M, Vassilakos P. Evaluation of estrogen receptors by immunocytochemistry on fine-needle aspiration biopsy specimens from breast tumors. Cancer. 1987 Sep 15;60(6):1163-72.
  • Bouchardy C, Vassilakos P, Riotton G. Endometrial cytohistology by the pistol-aspiration technique: clinical applicability. Obstet Gynecol. 1987 Sep;70(3 Pt 1):389-93.
  • Opfermann M, Brugal G, Vassilakos P. Cytometry of breast carcinoma: significance of ploïdy balance and proliferation index. Cytometry. 1987 Mar;8(2):217-24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cyto.990080216
  • Weintraub D, Weintraub J, Vassilakos P. [Use of immunohistochemistry in clinical cytology]. Ann Pathol. 1987;7(1):25-30.
  • Raymond L, Obradovic M, Patriota T, Riotton G, Vassilakos P. [Frequency and function of the cytological examination of cervical smears: 1967-83 data from Geneva]. Soz Praventivmed. 1986;31(4-5):197-9.
  • Beeguer J, Casutt M, Stiksa E, Vassilakos P, Voegeli H. [Treatment of condylomata of the cervix uteri with local administration of lysozyme]. Schweiz Rundsch Med Prax. 1985 Nov 26;74(48):1337-9.
  • Johannisson E, Vassilakos P, Riotton G. Cytochemical properties of human endometrial cells in vitro. Acta Cytol. 1977 Aug;21(4):588-95.
  • Vassilakos P, Riotton G, Kajii T. Hydatidiform mole: two entities. A morphologic and cytogenetic study with some clinical consideration. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1977 Jan 15;127(2):167-70.
  • Vassilakos P, Wenger D, Riotton G. [Pulmonary cythopathology (authors transl)]. Schweiz Rundsch Med Prax. 1976 Oct 12;65(41):1257-63.
  • Wyss R, Vassilakos P, Riotton G. [Endometrial cyto-histology by PISTOLET-aspiration technic (author’s transl)]. Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd. 1975 Nov;35(11):846-53.
  • Vassilakos P, Wyss R, Wenger D, Riotton G. Endometrial cytohistology by aspiration technic and by Gravlee Jet Washer: a comparative study. Obstet Gynecol. 1975 Mar;45(3):320-4.
  • Wyss R, Vassilakos P, Stastny J, Béguin F, Watteville H. [Late therapeutic abortion induced by intra-amniotic injection of a hypertonic saline solution]. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris). 1974 Dec;3(8):1189-206.
  • Vassilakos P, Wyss R, Stastný J. Decidual changes during hypertonic saline-induced abortion. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1974 Aug 1;119(7):889-94.
  • Vassilakos P, Cox JN. Filariasis diagnosed by cytologic examination of hydrocele fluid. Acta Cytol. 1974 Feb;18(1):62-4.
  • Vassilakos P. Tuberculosis of the breast: cytologic findings with fine-needle aspiration. A case clinically and radiologically mimicking carcinoma. Acta Cytol. 1973 Apr;17(2):160-5.
  • de Watteville H, Stastný J, Wyss R, Vassilakos P. [Hormonal profile in model conditions of acute fetal diseases]. Gynakol Rundsch. 1973;13:Suppl 1:106.
  • Chu-Chen K, Vassilakos P, Beguin F. [Exploratory aspirative curettage without anesthesia]. Gynecol Prat. 1972;23(1):5-8.

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